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Gene Review

kpsM  -  KpsM protein

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of kpsM

  • Furthermore, close sequence similarity between BexA and BexB and products of the kpsT and kpsM genes at the Escherichia coli K5 capsulation locus (Smith et al., 1990--accompanying paper) suggests that capsulation genes in these organisms may have a common ancestry [1].
  • Extensive sequence homology between the KpsM and KpsT proteins and the products of the bexB and bexA genes present in the capsulation (cap) locus of Haemophilus influenzae, indicates that a common mechanism for the export of polysaccharide across the inner membrane may exist in these two micro-organisms [2].
  • Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the KpsM and KpsT proteins indicates that they may function as dual components in a polysaccharide export system analogous to the periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems of Gram-negative bacteria [2].

High impact information on kpsM

  • Deletion and insertion mutagenesis of the JUMPstart sequence, which is 28 bp 5' of kpsM and is conserved upstream of RfaH-regulated operons and other polysaccharide biosynthesis genes, confirmed that this sequence was required for expression of the K5 antigen and for the antitermination activity of RfaH [3].
  • The hydropathy plot of RfbAKpO1 resembles KpsM, the transcytoplasmic membrane component of the capsular polysaccharide transporter from Escherichia coli K-1 and K-5 [4].
  • In vivo cross-linking studies provide support for dimerization of KpsM within the cytoplasmic membrane [5].
  • At one boundary of the capsule gene cluster, a truncated kpsM (kpsM(truncated) and its 5' noncoding regulatory sequence were identified [6].
  • Mutations that disrupt ATP-binding (K44E) or alter regions of the protein thought to interact with KpsM (G84D, S126F) suppressed the dominant negative phenotype while mutations in the C-terminal portion of the protein (C163Y, H181Y) did not suppress [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of kpsM


Biological context of kpsM

  • We propose that the KpsT protein acts as an energizer, coupling ATP hydrolysis to the transport process mediated by the KpsM protein [2].
  • The kpsMG93E allele is a point mutation in the first cytoplasmic loop (Cl) of KpsM which partially disrupts translocation of the capsule [9].

Anatomical context of kpsM


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of kpsM

  • Linker-insertion and site-directed mutagenesis define the N-terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop, and the SV-SVI linker as regions that are important for the function of KpsM in K1 polymer transport [5].


  1. The bex locus in encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae: a chromosomal region involved in capsule polysaccharide export. Kroll, J.S., Loynds, B., Brophy, L.N., Moxon, E.R. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli K5 kps locus: identification and characterization of an inner-membrane capsular polysaccharide transport system. Smith, A.N., Boulnois, G.J., Roberts, I.S. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster by transcription antitermination. Stevens, M.P., Clarke, B.R., Roberts, I.S. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of an ATP-binding cassette transport system required for translocation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen side-chains across the cytoplasmic membrane of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype O1. Bronner, D., Clarke, B.R., Whitfield, C. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Topological and mutational analysis of KpsM, the hydrophobic component of the ABC-transporter involved in the export of polysialic acid in Escherichia coli K1. Pigeon, R.P., Silver, R.P. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification, genomic organization, and analysis of the group III capsular polysaccharide genes kpsD, kpsM, kpsT, and kpsE from an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli (CP9, O4/K54/H5). Russo, T.A., Wenderoth, S., Carlino, U.B., Merrick, J.M., Lesse, A.J. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Polysialic acid export in Escherichia coli K1: the role of KpsT, the ATP-binding component of an ABC transporter, in chain translocation. Bliss, J.M., Garon, C.F., Silver, R.P. Glycobiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection of the Escherichia coli group 2 polysaccharide capsule synthesis Gene kpsM by a rapid and specific PCR-based assay. Johnson, J.R., O'Bryan, T.T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of the G93E mutant allele of KpsM, the membrane component of an ABC transporter involved in polysialic acid translocation in Escherichia coli K1. Pigeon, R.P., Silver, R.P. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
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