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Gene Review

CAP2  -  CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 2, CAP 2
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Disease relevance of CAP2

  • Based on data from cobalt backfills and anti-CAP immunohistochemical staining, we propose that CAP2 exerts its effect on the larval hindgut at wandering via a local release from CAP-containing neurones in the terminal ganglion that project directly to the hindgut [1].

High impact information on CAP2

  • Prostate ESTs are assembled into distinct species groups using the multiple alignment program CAP2 and are annotated with information from the GenBank, dbEST and Unigene public sequence databases [2].
  • Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19 [3].
  • We provide several lines of evidence that this CAP2 drop is regulated by the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) [4].
  • In larvae, the LNCs express high levels of a myoregulatory peptide, cardioacceleratory peptide 2 (CAP2) [4].
  • Measurements of the amount of CAP2 in the central nervous system (CNS) of fifth-instar caterpillars revealed that CAP2 storage levels declined sharply on the day of gut emptying [1].

Biological context of CAP2

  • Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast [3].
  • These two CAP bands of lysosomal origin appeared in sera of pregnant women at different times during the course of gestation; CAP1 band in the 3rd month and CAP2 band in the 6th month [5].

Anatomical context of CAP2

  • The other two cystine aminopeptidase bands (CAP1 and CAP2), characteristic of pregnancy, were demonstrated in lysosomal extracts and hence suggested to be derived from the lysosomes of the placenta [5].

Associations of CAP2 with chemical compounds

  • The CAP2 decline in the LNCs could be directly induced by exogenous steroid application, but only under conditions where the LNCs remained connected to the brain [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CAP2

  • CAP2, when applied at physiological concentrations to an in vitro larval hindgut bioassay, caused changes in several parameters, including contraction frequency and amplitude, and basal tension [1].


  1. Insect cardioactive peptides: regulation of hindgut activity by cardioacceleratory peptide 2 (CAP2) during wandering behaviour in Manduca sexta larvae. Tublitz, N.J., Allen, A.T., Cheung, C.C., Edwards, K.K., Kimble, D.P., Loi, P.K., Sylwester, A.W. J. Exp. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. PEDB: the Prostate Expression Database. Hawkins, V., Doll, D., Bumgarner, R., Smith, T., Abajian, C., Hood, L., Nelson, P.S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins. Yu, G., Swiston, J., Young, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Hormonal control of transmitter plasticity in insect peptidergic neurons. I. Steroid regulation of the decline in cardioacceleratory peptide 2 (CAP2) expression. Loi, P.K., Tublitz, N.J. J. Exp. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Demonstration of placental aminopeptidase isozymes by disc electrophoresis and its application to the forensic pregnancy test from blood stains. Oya, M., Yoshino, M., Mizutani, S. Forensic science. (1975) [Pubmed]
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