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Gene Review

ssrA  -  secretion system sensor kinase SsrA

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of ssrA


High impact information on ssrA

  • The isolated C-terminus of SsrB binds to DNA and protects regions upstream of ssrA, ssrB and srfH from DNase I digestion [4].
  • Additional regulators clearly affect gene expression at this important locus, and here we provide evidence that SlyA, a transcription factor that contributes to Salmonella virulence, also affects ssrA/B gene expression [4].
  • Results from DNase I protection assays provide direct evidence that SsrB binds at ssrA and ssrB, although the binding sites lie within the transcribed regions [4].
  • The transcriptional activity of an sseA::luc fusion gene was shown to be dependent on ssrA, which is required for the expression of genes encoding components of the secretion system apparatus [5].
  • Three wild-type strains of S. typhimurium, TML, HWSH, and SL1344, and two mutant strains, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB, consistently induced fluid accumulation in the lumen of loops and inflammation of loop-associated tissues [6].

Biological context of ssrA

  • We have cloned and characterized the attachment site (att) of SopEPhi and found that its 47-bp core sequence overlaps the 3' terminus of the ssrA gene of serovar Typhimurium [2].

Anatomical context of ssrA


Other interactions of ssrA

  • Expression of sopD2 was induced inside host cells and was dependent on functional ssrA/B and phoP/Q, two component regulatory systems [8].


  1. Dual regulation by phospho-OmpR of ssrA/B gene expression in Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Feng, X., Oropeza, R., Kenney, L.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The SopEPhi phage integrates into the ssrA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium A36 and is closely related to the Fels-2 prophage. Pelludat, C., Mirold, S., Hardt, W.D. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. ssrA (tmRNA) plays a role in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenesis. Julio, S.M., Heithoff, D.M., Mahan, M.J. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. The response regulator SsrB activates transcription and binds to a region overlapping OmpR binding sites at Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Feng, X., Walthers, D., Oropeza, R., Kenney, L.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Genes encoding putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 are required for bacterial virulence and proliferation in macrophages. Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Waterman, S.R., Mundy, R., Nikolaus, T., Banks, G., Vazquez-Torres, A., Gleeson, C., Fang, F.C., Holden, D.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of Salmonella typhimurium mutants in a model of experimental gastroenteritis. Everest, P., Ketley, J., Hardy, S., Douce, G., Khan, S., Shea, J., Holden, D., Maskell, D., Dougan, G. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium inside porcine monocytes is associated with complement binding and suppression of the production of reactive oxygen species. Donné, E., Pasmans, F., Boyen, F., Van Immerseel, F., Adriaensen, C., Hernalsteens, J.P., Ducatelle, R., Haesebrouck, F. Vet. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. SopD2 is a novel type III secreted effector of Salmonella typhimurium that targets late endocytic compartments upon delivery into host cells. Brumell, J.H., Kujat-Choy, S., Brown, N.F., Vallance, B.A., Knodler, L.A., Finlay, B.B. Traffic (2003) [Pubmed]
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