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Gene Review

ABRA  -  actin-binding Rho activating protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Actin-binding Rho-activating protein, STARS, Striated muscle activator of Rho-dependent signaling
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Disease relevance of ABRA


High impact information on ABRA

  • We also demonstrated that ABRA attenuates AOP-1 antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner and the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in ABR-treated cells [3].
  • Abrin A-chain (ABRA) inhibits protein synthesis by its N-glycosidase activity as well as induces apoptosis, but the molecular mechanism of ABRA-induced cell death has been obscure [3].
  • ABRA was previously shown to be located at the merozoite surface and in the parasitophorous vacuole [4].
  • The P. falciparum merozoites lacking MSP3 and ABRA on the surface show reduced invasion into erythrocytes [5].
  • Based upon the predicted amino acid sequence of ABRA, we synthesized eight peptides, with six of these (AB-1 to AB-6) ranging from 12 to 18 residues covering the most hydrophilic regions of the protein, and two more peptides (AB-7 and AB-8) representing its repetitive sequences [6].

Biological context of ABRA


Anatomical context of ABRA

  • Three of these antigens (RESA, FIRA, and ABRA) are found in the asexual blood-stages of the parasite, while the remaining one (CSP) is found in the sporozoites [9].
  • In vitro activities in mussel hemocytes as biomarkers of environmental quality: a case study in the Abra Estuary (Biscay Bay) [10].

Associations of ABRA with chemical compounds

  • Effects of medetomidine, a novel antifouling agent, on the burrowing bivalve Abra nitida (Müller) [11].

Other interactions of ABRA

  • The mean age of presentation of ABRA (67 years) is higher than that of PACNS but lower than that of sporadic non-inflammatory Abeta-related CAA [2].
  • IgG reactivities to the GLURP peptide in Sudanese adults were high one month after treatment in all adults tested, while IgG reactivities to the ABRA peptide were infrequent [12].


  1. Immunogenicity of recombinant fragments of Plasmodium falciparum acidic basic repeat antigen produced in Escherichia coli. Kushwaha, A., Rao, P.P., Suresh, R.P., Chauhan, V.S. Parasite Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Abeta-related angiitis: primary angiitis of the central nervous system associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Scolding, N.J., Joseph, F., Kirby, P.A., Mazanti, I., Gray, F., Mikol, J., Ellison, D., Hilton, D.A., Williams, T.L., MacKenzie, J.M., Xuereb, J.H., Love, S. Brain (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Abrin triggers cell death by inactivating a thiol-specific antioxidant protein. Shih, S.F., Wu, Y.H., Hung, C.H., Yang, H.Y., Lin, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Primary structure of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria antigen located at the merozoite surface and within the parasitophorous vacuole. Weber, J.L., Lyon, J.A., Wolff, R.H., Hall, T., Lowell, G.H., Chulay, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Truncation of merozoite surface protein 3 disrupts its trafficking and that of acidic-basic repeat protein to the surface of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Mills, K.E., Pearce, J.A., Crabb, B.S., Cowman, A.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of protective epitopes in a highly conserved Plasmodium falciparum antigenic protein containing repeats of acidic and basic residues. Sharma, P., Kumar, A., Singh, B., Bharadwaj, A., Sailaja, V.N., Adak, T., Kushwaha, A., Malhotra, P., Chauhan, V.S. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. A Trichomonas vaginalis cDNA with partial protein sequence homology with a Plasmodium falciparum excreted protein ABRA. Garber, G.E., Lemchuk-Favel, L.T., Meysick, K.C., Dimock, K. Appl. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Influence of suspended solids on bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and lindane to the deposit-feeding marine bivalve, Abra nitida (Müller). Ekelund, R., Granmo, A., Berggren, M., Renberg, L., Wahlberg, C. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthetic, immunological and structural studies on repeat unit peptides of Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Kaur, P., Sharma, P., Kumar, A., Chauhan, V.S. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro activities in mussel hemocytes as biomarkers of environmental quality: a case study in the Abra Estuary (Biscay Bay). Cajaraville, M.P., Olabarrieta, I., Marigomez, I. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of medetomidine, a novel antifouling agent, on the burrowing bivalve Abra nitida (Müller). Bellas, J., Hilvarsson, A., Birgersson, G., Granmo, K. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity. Jakobsen, P.H., Theander, T.G., Hviid, L., Morris-Jones, S., Jensen, J.B., Bayoumi, R.A., Greenwood, B.M., Bygbjerg, I.C., Heegaard, P.M. APMIS (1996) [Pubmed]
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