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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Plasmodium

  • The mRNA for the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite, has recently been cloned and shown to encode a widely expressed chemokine receptor [1].
  • A 12 amino-acid synthetic peptide (NANP)3 comprising the immunodominant epitope of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide, and administered intramuscularly in three doses at monthly intervals to 35 healthy males as a malaria vaccine [2].
  • A recombinant complementary DNA clone from Plasmodium knowlesi makes a beta-lactamase fusion polypeptide in Escherichia coli that reacts with a monoclonal antibody to a Plasmodium surface antigen [3].
  • The activity of serum TNF-alpha was considerably increased in CBA/Ca mice with cerebral malaria but not in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice that did not develop this complication [4].
  • Gametocyte infectivity and oocyst development of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, can be reduced or eliminated in mosquitoes by immunizing the chickens on which the mosquitoes feed with infected red blood cells that have been treated with formalin or x-rays [5].

High impact information on Plasmodium


Chemical compound and disease context of Plasmodium


Biological context of Plasmodium


Anatomical context of Plasmodium


Associations of Plasmodium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Plasmodium

  • We have identified a homologue of ERD2 in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (PfERD2) [31].
  • Two murine loci on chromosomes 8 (Pchr/Char2) and 9 (Char1) have previously been mapped in F(2) crosses, and play an important role in regulating blood parasitemia and survival to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi [32].
  • Recently, members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family have been shown to be involved in recognition of the etiologic organism Plasmodium falciparum: The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor induces signaling in host cells via TLR-2 and -4, whereas hemozoin-induced immune activation involves TLR-9 [33].
  • Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to the membrane-bound form of Fractalkine/CX3CL1 [34].
  • The Duffy protein is a receptor for the Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte-binding protein and is also a receptor for various chemokines (thus renamed Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines [DARC]) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plasmodium


  1. Disruption of a GATA motif in the Duffy gene promoter abolishes erythroid gene expression in Duffy-negative individuals. Tournamille, C., Colin, Y., Cartron, J.P., Le Van Kim, C. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a synthetic peptide malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Herrington, D.A., Clyde, D.F., Losonsky, G., Cortesia, M., Murphy, J.R., Davis, J., Baqar, S., Felix, A.M., Heimer, E.P., Gillessen, D. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of a Plasmodium surface antigen epitope by Tn5 mutagenesis mapping of a recombinant cDNA clone. Lupski, J.R., Ozaki, L.S., Ellis, J., Godson, G.N. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) as an essential mediator in murine cerebral malaria. Grau, G.E., Fajardo, L.F., Piguet, P.F., Allet, B., Lambert, P.H., Vassalli, P. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Successful immunization against the sexual stages of Plasmodium gallinaceum. Gwadz, R.W. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. A greedy promoter controls malarial var-iations. Scherf, A. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Complement-like protein TEP1 is a determinant of vectorial capacity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Blandin, S., Shiao, S.H., Moita, L.F., Janse, C.J., Waters, A.P., Kafatos, F.C., Levashina, E.A. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Is the putative chloroquine resistance mediator CG2 the Na+/H+ exchanger of Plasmodium falciparum? Sanchez, C.P., Horrocks, P., Lanzer, M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. CD36 directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes. Oquendo, P., Hundt, E., Lawler, J., Seed, B. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Amplification of the multidrug resistance gene in some chloroquine-resistant isolates of P. falciparum. Foote, S.J., Thompson, J.K., Cowman, A.F., Kemp, D.J. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. High rate of Plasmodium vivax relapse following treatment of falciparum malaria in Thailand. Looareesuwan, S., White, N.J., Chittamas, S., Bunnag, D., Harinasuta, T. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine ('Fansidar') in a refugee camp in Thailand. Hurwitz, E.S., Johnson, D., Campbell, C.C. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Drug therapy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistant to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar). A study of alternate regimens in Eastern Thailand, 1980. Reacher, M., Campbell, C.C., Freeman, J., Doberstyn, E.B., Brandling-Bennett, A.D. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children: a randomised, multicentre trial. Adjuik, M., Agnamey, P., Babiker, A., Borrmann, S., Brasseur, P., Cisse, M., Cobelens, F., Diallo, S., Faucher, J.F., Garner, P., Gikunda, S., Kremsner, P.G., Krishna, S., Lell, B., Loolpapit, M., Matsiegui, P.B., Missinou, M.A., Mwanza, J., Ntoumi, F., Olliaro, P., Osimbo, P., Rezbach, P., Some, E., Taylor, W.R. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Does endotoxin cause both the disease and parasite death in acute malaria and babesiosis? Clark, I.A. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. The large diverse gene family var encodes proteins involved in cytoadherence and antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Su, X.Z., Heatwole, V.M., Wertheimer, S.P., Guinet, F., Herrfeldt, J.A., Peterson, D.S., Ravetch, J.A., Wellems, T.E. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Malaria virulence genes controlling expression through chromatin modification. Deitsch, K.W. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Immune sera recognize on erythrocytes Plasmodium falciparum antigen composed of repeated amino acid sequences. Coppel, R.L., Cowman, A.F., Anders, R.F., Bianco, A.E., Saint, R.B., Lingelbach, K.R., Kemp, D.J., Brown, G.V. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Developmental selection of var gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum. Chen, Q., Fernandez, V., Sundström, A., Schlichtherle, M., Datta, S., Hagblom, P., Wahlgren, M. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetic diversity and chloroquine selective sweeps in Plasmodium falciparum. Wootton, J.C., Feng, X., Ferdig, M.T., Cooper, R.A., Mu, J., Baruch, D.I., Magill, A.J., Su, X.Z. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity. Silvie, O., Rubinstein, E., Franetich, J.F., Prenant, M., Belnoue, E., Rénia, L., Hannoun, L., Eling, W., Levy, S., Boucheix, C., Mazier, D. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Enhanced expression of H-2K and H-2D antigens on reticulocytes infected with Plasmodium yoelii. Jayawardena, A.N., Mogil, R., Murphy, D.B., Burger, D., Gershon, R.K. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Interleukin 10-mediated immunosuppression by a variant CD4 T cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum. Plebanski, M., Flanagan, K.L., Lee, E.A., Reece, W.H., Hart, K., Gelder, C., Gillespie, G., Pinder, M., Hill, A.V. Immunity (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. MAEBL is essential for malarial sporozoite infection of the mosquito salivary gland. Kariu, T., Yuda, M., Yano, K., Chinzei, Y. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Human vascular endothelial cell adhesion receptors for Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes: roles for endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Ockenhouse, C.F., Tegoshi, T., Maeno, Y., Benjamin, C., Ho, M., Kan, K.E., Thway, Y., Win, K., Aikawa, M., Lobb, R.R. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia. Schwartz, I.K., Lackritz, E.M., Patchen, L.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Pgh1 modulates sensitivity and resistance to multiple antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum. Reed, M.B., Saliba, K.J., Caruana, S.R., Kirk, K., Cowman, A.F. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Primary structure of the histidine-rich protein of Plasmodium lophurae. Irving, D.O., Cross, G.A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition by chloroquine of a novel haem polymerase enzyme activity in malaria trophozoites. Slater, A.F., Cerami, A. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Triclosan offers protection against blood stages of malaria by inhibiting enoyl-ACP reductase of Plasmodium falciparum. Surolia, N., Surolia, A. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification and localization of ERD2 in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: separation from sites of sphingomyelin synthesis and implications for organization of the Golgi. Elmendorf, H.G., Haldar, K. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of a new malaria susceptibility locus (Char4) in recombinant congenic strains of mice. Fortin, A., Cardon, L.R., Tam, M., Skamene, E., Stevenson, M.M., Gros, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms in African children: Common TLR-4 variants predispose to severe malaria. Mockenhaupt, F.P., Cramer, J.P., Hamann, L., Stegemann, M.S., Eckert, J., Oh, N.R., Otchwemah, R.N., Dietz, E., Ehrhardt, S., Schröder, N.W., Bienzle, U., Schumann, R.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to the membrane-bound form of Fractalkine/CX3CL1. Hatabu, T., Kawazu, S., Aikawa, M., Kano, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. A novel mutation in the coding sequence of the FY*B allele of the Duffy chemokine receptor gene is associated with an altered erythrocyte phenotype. Parasol, N., Reid, M., Rios, M., Castilho, L., Harari, I., Kosower, N.S. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Mung bean nuclease cleaves Plasmodium genomic DNA at sites before and after genes. McCutchan, T.F., Hansen, J.L., Dame, J.B., Mullins, J.A. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. Actomyosin content of Physarum plasmodia and detection of immunological cross-reactions with myosins from related species. Kessler, D., Nachmias, V.T., Loewy, A.G. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene. Bzik, D.J., Li, W.B., Horii, T., Inselburg, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-specific CD4+ T cells adoptively transferred into recipient mice after challenge with homologous parasite. Hirunpetcharat, C., Good, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. A blood stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum shares determinants with the sporozoite coat protein. Coppel, R.L., Favaloro, J.M., Crewther, P.E., Burkot, T.R., Bianco, A.E., Stahl, H.D., Kemp, D.J., Anders, R.F., Brown, G.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
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