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Gene Review

USP21  -  ubiquitin specific peptidase 21

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Deubiquitinating enzyme 21, PP1490, USP16, USP23, Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 21, ...
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High impact information on USP21

  • Furthermore, USP21 is capable of removing NEDD8 from NEDD8 conjugates but has no effect on Sentrin-1 conjugates [1].
  • The human USP21 gene is located on chromosome 1q21 and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family with highly conserved Cys and His domains [1].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,143 base pairs encoding a novel protease, USP21, which is composed of 381 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 43 kDa [1].
  • The activity and specificity of USP21 were determined by using a COS cell expression system in vivo [1].
  • Thus, USP21 is the first ubiquitin-specific protease shown to have dual specificity for both ubiquitin and NEDD8 and may play an important role in the regulation of cell growth [1].

Biological context of USP21


Anatomical context of USP21

  • 6. Three types of pellet formulations were subjected to dissolution studies using the USP 23 Apparatus 2 and 3 over a pH range simulating the human gastrointestinal tract [3].

Associations of USP21 with chemical compounds

  • Reducing the proportion of pellets to 60% per tablet, less than 10% of bisacodyl were released within 2 h during acid treatment thus fulfilling the requirements of the USP 23 [4].
  • The speed of the tablet press had noo influence on the pellet damages using Avicel PH 101 as a filler-binder, however, tablets containing 70% (w/w) of coated pellets did not fulfil the requirements of USP 23, despite optimum elasticity and coating thickness of a new Eudragit FS 30 D coating [4].
  • It is concluded that the USP 23 recommended dissolution procedure for enteric-coated products is not suitable due to the degradation of omeprazole under such conditions [5].
  • The requirements of the USP 23 for Estradiol tablets of 75% dissolved drug after 60 min were fulfilled after storing the tablets for 6 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH [6].
  • Tablets of this hydrophobic formulation fulfilled the requirements of USP 23 for theophylline sustained-release preparations [7].

Other interactions of USP21

  • Human tissue Northern blots revealed USP23 to be ubiquitously expressed, whereas USP12, its closest human paralogue, displayed a more restricted expression pattern [2].
  • Beginning in USP23 <788> (1) and continuing in USP 24 there is official recognition that the results of the nondestructive inspection for "visible" particles cannot be described in simple terms [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of USP21

  • The assay results showed insignificant difference with those of the official USP 23 HPLC method [9].
  • The determination of active compounds in samples of dissolution tests of oral solid dosage forms based on the USP 23 methods was performed by capillary electrophoresis after the use of solid-phase extraction disks for the preconcentration of drugs [10].


  1. Identification of a novel isopeptidase with dual specificity for ubiquitin- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins. Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Millas, S., Yeh, E.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequencing, tissue distribution and chromosomal assignment of a novel ubiquitin-specific protease USP23. Smith, T.S., Southan, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro release modulation from crosslinked pellets for site-specific drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract. I. Comparison of pH-responsive drug release and associated kinetics. Pillay, V., Fassihi, R. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of disintegrating multiple-unit tablets on a high-speed rotary tablet press. Wagner, K.G., Krumme, M., Beckert, T.E., Schmidt, P.C. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Dissolution of omeprazole from delayed-release solid oral dosage forms. Farinha, A., Bica, A., Martins, J.M., Pais, J.P. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Stability of extruded 17 beta-estradiol solid dispersions. Hülsmann, S., Backensfeld, T., Bodmeier, R. Pharmaceutical development and technology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of matrix-based theophylline sustained-release microtablets. Rey, H., Wagner, K.G., Wehrlé, P., Schmidt, P.C. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Origin, result and measurement of USP "essentially free" inspection for visible contaminating particles. Knapp, J.Z. PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology / PDA. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of ritodrine hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Razak, O.A. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Development and validation of capillary electrophoresis methods for pharmaceutical dissolution assays. Lucangioli, S.E., Rodríguez, V.G., Fernández Otero, G.C., Vizioli, N.M., Carducci, C.N. Journal of capillary electrophoresis. (1997) [Pubmed]
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