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Gene Review

GPKOW  -  G patch domain and KOW motifs

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G patch domain and KOW motifs-containing protein, G patch domain-containing protein 5, GPATC5, GPATCH5, Protein MOS2 homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of GPKOW

  • OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies have shown that the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) T54 allele is associated with dyslipidemia, which in turn correlates with the incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [1].

High impact information on GPKOW

  • To gain insight into the function of human protein kinase X (PrKX), a signal-transduction protein required for macrophage differentiation, we identified regulatory subunit I alpha of protein kinase A, T54 and Smad6 as partners for this protein using a yeast two-hybrid interaction screen [2].
  • CDK1 phosphorylates the A-kinase regulatory subunit RIIalpha on threonine 54 (T54) at mitosis, an event proposed to alter the subcellular localization of RIIalpha [3].
  • This correlates with T54 phosphorylation of RIIalpha [3].
  • DESIGN: Eleven A54 homozygotes and 11 T54 carriers were given 3 oral-fat-tolerance tests (butter, safflower oil, and olive oil) [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The A54T polymorphism results in a diet-gene interaction: the T54 group had increased chylomicron cholesterol after olive oil only [4].

Biological context of GPKOW

  • Obese and diabetic T54 carriers have greater postprandial lipemia than do A54 homozygotes [4].
  • An association between genotype and chylomicron cholesterol was seen only after olive oil: values were higher (P = 0.02) in T54 carriers (0.087 +/- 0.006 mmol. h/L) than in A54 homozygotes (0.058 +/- 0.004 mmol. h/L) [4].
  • Interestingly, fasting TG concentrations in large TG-rich lipoproteins (large-TRL; S(f) > 400) were correlated with HDL-TG levels at 4 (r = 0.74, p = 0.01) and 8 hours (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) after the test meal in T54/A54 heterozygotes only [5].
  • The T54 variant of the FABP2 gene has shown an association with the insulin resistance syndrome in some, but not all, studies [6].

Anatomical context of GPKOW

  • Our data are consistent with the T54 IFABP increasing the flux of lipids through the enterocyte leading to an increase in chylomicron secretion [7].
  • From this initial sample, 50 men accepted to have their postprandial lipid response assessed and 10 T54/A54 heterozygotes were then individually matched for visceral adipose tissue accumulation and fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) levels with 10 A54/A54 homozygotes [5].

Associations of GPKOW with chemical compounds

  • The T54 protein isoform is also associated with increased triacylglycerol secretion in vitro [4].
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated diet-gene interactions by measuring postprandial lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in healthy, nonobese A54 homozygotes and T54 carriers after ingestion of 3 different fats [4].
  • In women, the T54 allele was associated with significantly higher total-cholesterol (5.32+/-1.01 vs. 5.17+/-0.98 mmol/l; P<0.049) and LDL-cholesterol (3.31+/-0.93 vs. 3.18+/-0.85 mmol/l; P<0.023) after adjustment for covariates and menopausal status, estrogen therapy and APOE genotype [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPKOW

  • D and V mutations of T54 also reduce affinity for the N-terminal RII-binding domain of AKAP450, whereas small neutral residues do not change affinity detected by surface plasmon resonance [8].


  1. The FABP2 gene polymorphism in cerebrovascular disease. Wanby, P., Palmquist, P., Rydén, I., Brattström, L., Carlsson, M. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Smad6 is a protein kinase X phosphorylation substrate and is required for HL-60 cell differentiation. Glesne, D., Huberman, E. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of anchoring of the RIIalpha regulatory subunit of PKA to AKAP95 by threonine phosphorylation of RIIalpha: implications for chromosome dynamics at mitosis. Landsverk, H.B., Carlson, C.R., Steen, R.L., Vossebein, L., Herberg, F.W., Taskén, K., Collas, P. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Postprandial lipemia in subjects with the threonine 54 variant of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene is dependent on the type of fat ingested. Dworatzek, P.D., Hegele, R.A., Wolever, T.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of the FABP2 A54T mutation on triglyceride metabolism of viscerally obese men. Berthier, M.T., Couillard, C., Prud'homme, D., Nadeau, A., Bergeron, J., Tremblay, A., Després, J.P., Vohl, M.C. Obes. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Preliminary evidence of FABP2 A54T polymorphism associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in women from a German cohort. Fisher, E., Li, Y., Burwinkel, B., Kühr, V., Hoffmann, K., Möhlig, M., Spranger, J., Pfeiffer, A., Boeing, H., Schrezenmeir, J., Döring, F. Horm. Metab. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of the A/T54 polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein with variations in plasma lipids in the Framingham Offspring Study. Galluzzi, J.R., Cupples, L.A., Otvos, J.D., Wilson, P.W., Schaefer, E.J., Ordovas, J.M. Atherosclerosis (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of the RIIalpha regulatory subunit of PKA works as a molecular switch that promotes dissociation of RIIalpha from centrosomes at mitosis. Carlson, C.R., Witczak, O., Vossebein, L., Labbé, J.C., Skålhegg, B.S., Keryer, G., Herberg, F.W., Collas, P., Taskén, K. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
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