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MeSH Review

Carthamus tinctorius

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Disease relevance of Carthamus tinctorius


Psychiatry related information on Carthamus tinctorius

  • Likewise rats aged 6 and 9 months, fed semisynthetic diets containing 20 percent by weight of lard, oleinate, or safflower oil +alpha-tocopherol performed significantly better in a discrimination learning situation (Skinner box) than did rats fed a diet containing 20 percent by weight of safflower oil [6].

High impact information on Carthamus tinctorius

  • The formation of prostaglandin E2 increased during supplementation with safflower oil and tended to decrease with fish oil; no prostaglandin E3 metabolite was detected [7].
  • In rats fed high-fat diets, replacement of only 6 percent of the linoleic omega-6 fatty acids from safflower oil with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil prevented the development of insulin resistance [8].
  • Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively) [9].
  • Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged [10].
  • Serum cholesterol levels were significantly depressed in the HF safflower oil and corn oil groups compared to those in all other dietary groups and, in general, varied inversely with respect to mammary tumor incidence [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carthamus tinctorius

  • This incidence was lowered when mono- and polyunsaturated fats or fatty acids were added to the diet: 2.5% oleic acid resulted in total prevention of cholesterol cholelithiasis, 2.5% linoleic acid, and 4% safflower oil (78% linoleic acid content) reduced gallstone incidence to 26 and 8%, respectively [12].
  • Maternal weight gain during gestation was decreased by ethanol relative to maltose-dextrin, and increased by fish relative to safflower oil [13].
  • It was concluded that the safflower oil-fed animals had a higher incidence of cholelithiasis than the butter group because, unlike the latter group, they did not compensate for a high cholesterol intake by stimulating bile acid synthesis [14].
  • No significant decrease in the incidence of dermatitis was observed from the following dietary supplements: a 50% increase in a vitamin or a complete trace mineral mixture; a 50% increase in an iron, copper, iodine, and cobalt or a manganese and zinc mixture; .05% methionine; 5% meat and bone meal; 3% herring fish meal; or 2% safflower oil [15].
  • Compared with the safflower diet, treatment for 2 weeks with the fish oil diet caused significant increases in the ratio of liver weight/body weight and the specific activities in liver homogenates of peroxisomal enzymes fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (263%) and catalase (149%) and caused a significant lowering of plasma triacylglycerol levels [16].

Biological context of Carthamus tinctorius


Anatomical context of Carthamus tinctorius


Associations of Carthamus tinctorius with chemical compounds


Gene context of Carthamus tinctorius

  • Athymic nude mice transplanted with the cells expressing enzymatically active COX were fed isocaloric diets containing either safflower oil or fish oil for 2 weeks before the start of the experiment and for an additional 21 days after transplantation [30].
  • Compared with safflower oil feeding, fish oil feeding decreased liver SREBP-1c mRNA level by 86% but did not alter SERBP-1a mRNA [29].
  • At this point, the nuclear content of SREBP-2 was actually twofold higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed fish oil or safflower oil, but the amount of precursor SREBP-2 was unaffected [31].
  • Thus, these observations clearly indicate that safflower polysaccharides activate the NF-kappaB signaling pathway via TLR4 [32].
  • To examine the effect of fish oil on adiponectin secretion, mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric diets containing 27% safflower oil or 27, 13.5, and 8% menhaden fish oil [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carthamus tinctorius

  • When rats were fed a diet containing 10% safflower oil or menhaden fish oil, the level of hepatic mRNA for Delta-5 and Delta-6 desaturase was only 25% of that found in the liver of rats fed a fat-free diet or a diet containing triolein [34].
  • The safety and effectiveness of a 10% safflower oil emulsion in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency was tested in a prospective study of 15 surgical patients requiring total parenteral nutrition for two to four weeks [35].
  • DESIGN: A single-blind, randomized, within-subject crossover design was used to study the effects of palm oil, safflower oil, a mixture of fish and safflower oil, and olive oil on postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48, retinyl ester, and triacylglycerol in the S(f) > 400 fraction with the use of a sequential meal protocol [36].
  • To determine the optimal fat intake and source in nutritional support, we measured the protein-sparing effects of a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil and a 50:50 soybean to safflower oil emulsion (long-chain triglyceride, LCT) [37].
  • In this 8-wk double-blind study the hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive daily supplements of 6 g ethyl ester of either fish oil, olive oil, or safflower oil [38].


  1. Some studies on the composition and surface properties of oil bodies from the seed cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and linseed (Linum ustatissimum). Slack, C.R., Bertaud, W.S., Shaw, B.D., Holland, R., Browse, J., Wright, H. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of rat liver fatty acid synthesis by eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraynoic acid without a reduction in lipogenic enzymes. Clarke, B.A., Clarke, S.D. J. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of ambient temperature on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol in weanling mice. Tove, S.B., Gooding, R., Nyajom, M. J. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Chick nutritional encephalomalacia and prostanoid formation. Véricel, E., Budowski, P., Crawford, M.A. J. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Detoxification of the macrolide toxin brefeldin A by Bacillus subtilis. Kneusel, R.E., Matern, U., Wray, V., Klöppel, K.D. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Free radical theory of aging: effect of dietary fat on central nervous system function. Harman, D., Hendricks, S., Eddy, D.E., Seibold, J. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. The antihypertensive effects of fish oil. A controlled study of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements in essential hypertension. Knapp, H.R., FitzGerald, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats. Storlien, L.H., Kraegen, E.W., Chisholm, D.J., Ford, G.L., Bruce, D.G., Pascoe, W.S. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Dietary fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport by altering LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels. Horton, J.D., Cuthbert, J.A., Spady, D.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat. Ventura, M.A., Woollett, L.A., Spady, D.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Dietary fat and mammary cancer. II. Modulation of serum and tumor lipid composition and tumor prostaglandins by different dietary fats: association with tumor incidence patterns. Cohen, L.A., Thompson, D.O., Choi, K., Karmali, R.A., Rose, D.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Prevention of cholesterol cholelithiasis by dietary unsaturated fats in hormone-treated female hamsters. Ayyad, N., Cohen, B.I., Ohshima, A., Mosbach, E.H. Lipids (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Interactive effects of prenatal ethanol and N-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in mice. Wainwright, P.E., Huang, Y.S., Mills, D.E., Ward, G.R., Ward, R.P., McCutcheon, D. Lipids (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of polyunsaturated fats on bile acid metabolism and cholelithiasis in squirrel monkeys. Melchior, G.W., Lofland, H.B., St Clair, R.W. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of several dermatitis preventing agents on foot pad dermatitis in dwarf and normal sized single comb white Leghorn layers. Burger, R.A., Atuahene, Y.O., Arscott, G.H. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. A diet rich in (n-3) fatty acids increases peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity and lowers plasma triacylglycerols without inhibiting glutathione-dependent detoxication activities in the rat liver. Yamazaki, R.K., Shen, T., Schade, G.B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and requirement of ferredoxin for enzyme activity. Thompson, G.A., Scherer, D.E., Foxall-Van Aken, S., Kenny, J.W., Young, H.L., Shintani, D.K., Kridl, J.C., Knauf, V.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Depression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterification in vitamin E-deficient monkeys. Mickel, H.S., Hill, P.L., Hayes, K.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Axelrod, L., Camuso, J., Williams, E., Kleinman, K., Briones, E., Schoenfeld, D. Diabetes Care (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol production in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Stobart, A.K., Stymne, S. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of dietary fat content and composition during pregnancy on fetal hepatic HMG CoA reductase activities and lipids in rats. Haave, N.C., Nicol, L.J., Innis, S.M. J. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of dietary lipids on recovery from mucosal injury. Vanderhoof, J.A., Park, J.H., Mohammadpour, H., Blackwood, D. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenate on platelet-activating factor production in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Horii, T., Satouchi, K., Kobayashi, Y., Saito, K., Watanabe, S., Yoshida, Y., Okuyama, H. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Reversal of experimental essential fatty acid deficiency by cutaneous administration of safflower oil. Böhles, H., Bieber, M.A., Heird, W.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of dietary perilla oil, soybean oil and safflower oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH)-induced mammary gland and colon carcinogenesis in female SD rats. Hirose, M., Masuda, A., Ito, N., Kamano, K., Okuyama, H. Carcinogenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Functional changes of rat brain microsomal membrane surface after learning task depending on dietary fatty acids. Yoshida, S., Miyazaki, M., Takeshita, M., Yuasa, S., Kobayashi, T., Watanabe, S., Okuyama, H. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Tumor promotion by dietary fat in azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in female F344 rats: influence of amount and source of dietary fat. Reddy, B.S., Maeura, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Modulation of hepatic ferrochelatase activity by dietary manipulation of mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl groups. Kools, A.M., Straka, J.G., Hill, H.D., Whitmer, D.I., Holman, R.T., Bloomer, J.R. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Fish oil feeding decreases mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) by down-regulation of SREBP-1c mRNA in mouse liver. A possible mechanism for down-regulation of lipogenic enzyme mrnas. Kim, H.J., Takahashi, M., Ezaki, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Suppression of tumor cell growth both in nude mice and in culture by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: mediation through cyclooxygenase-independent pathways. Boudreau, M.D., Sohn, K.H., Rhee, S.H., Lee, S.W., Hunt, J.D., Hwang, D.H. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Dietary polyunsaturated fats regulate rat liver sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 and -2 in three distinct stages and by different mechanisms. Xu, J., Cho, H., O'Malley, S., Park, J.H., Clarke, S.D. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Safflower polysaccharides activate the transcription factor NF-kappa B via Toll-like receptor 4 and induce cytokine production by macrophages. Ando, I., Tsukumo, Y., Wakabayashi, T., Akashi, S., Miyake, K., Kataoka, T., Nagai, K. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice. Neschen, S., Morino, K., Rossbacher, J.C., Pongratz, R.L., Cline, G.W., Sono, S., Gillum, M., Shulman, G.I. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning, expression, and fatty acid regulation of the human delta-5 desaturase. Cho, H.P., Nakamura, M., Clarke, S.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Parenteral safflower oil emulsion (Liposyn 10%): safety and effectiveness in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients. Bivins, B.A., Rapp, R.P., Record, K., Meng, H.C., Griffen, W.O. Ann. Surg. (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Olive oil increases the number of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron particles compared with other oils: an effect retained when a second standard meal is fed. Jackson, K.G., Robertson, M.D., Fielding, B.A., Frayn, K.N., Williams, C.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of low and high amounts of a structured lipid containing fish oil on protein metabolism in enterally fed burned rats. Selleck, K.J., Wan, J.M., Gollaher, C.J., Babayan, V.K., Bistrian, B.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of three sources of long-chain fatty acids on the plasma fatty acid profile, plasma prostaglandin E2 concentrations, and pruritus symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Peck, L.W., Monsen, E.R., Ahmad, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
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