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Gene Review

map1  -  hypothetical protein

Ehrlichia ruminantium str. Welgevonden

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Disease relevance of map1

  • We have investigated the nature of natural selection acting on an outer membrane protein, the wsp gene in Wolbachia and its homologue map1 in Cowdria, thought likely to be involved in host-parasite interactions in these bacteria [1].
  • Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein gene (map1) variants are not geographically constrained and show no evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure [2].
  • A genetic map for C. ruminantium with a mean resolution of 290 kb was established, the first for a member of the Ehrlichieae: A total of nine genes or cloned C. ruminantium DNA fragments were mapped to specific KSP:I, RSR:II and SMA:I fragments, including the major antigenic protein gene, map-1 [3].

High impact information on map1

  • The regions of the wsp and map1 genes we identified as likely to be involved in host-parasite arms races should be examined in future studies of parasite virulence and host immune responses, and during the design of vaccines [1].
  • Our results indicate that the map1 gene cluster is relatively conserved but can be subject to recombination, and differences in the transcription of map1 multigenes in host and vector cell environments exist [4].
  • Reverse transcription-PCR on E. ruminantium derived mRNA from infected cells using gene-specific primers revealed that all 16 map1 paralogs were transcribed in endothelial cells [4].
  • The map1 multigene family is downstream of a hypothetical transcriptional regulator gene and upstream of the secA gene [5].
  • Using genome walking and data from an ongoing E. ruminantium genome sequencing project at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, we found 16 paralogs of the map1 gene tandemly arranged in a 25 kb region of the E. ruminantium genome [5].

Biological context of map1


Anatomical context of map1

  • Blood and bone marrow samples from healthy, free-ranging Zimbabwean ungulates were taken during translocation from areas harboring Amblyomma ticks and tested for the presence of C. ruminantium, using a PCR assay based on the C. ruminantium map1 gene [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of map1

  • In a preliminary follow-up study, protection conferred by DNA vaccination with individual gene constructs was not enhanced when the protective constructs were administered in combination (including the map-1 gene of E. ruminantium) [9].


  1. Host-symbiont conflicts: positive selection on an outer membrane protein of parasitic but not mutualistic Rickettsiaceae. Jiggins, F.M., Hurst, G.D., Yang, Z. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein gene (map1) variants are not geographically constrained and show no evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure. Allsopp, M.T., Dorfling, C.M., Maillard, J.C., Bensaid, A., Haydon, D.T., van Heerden, H., Allsopp, B.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Genome size and genetic map of Cowdria ruminantium. de Villiers, E.P., Brayton, K.A., Zweygarth, E., Allsopp, B.A. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcription analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of three in vitro-cultured Ehrlichia ruminantium isolates. Bekker, C.P., Postigo, M., Taoufik, A., Bell-Sakyi, L., Ferraz, C., Martinez, D., Jongejan, F. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of a major outer membrane protein multigene family in Ehrlichia ruminantium. van Heerden, H., Collins, N.E., Brayton, K.A., Rademeyer, C., Allsopp, B.A. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative evaluation of 16S, map1 and pCS20 probes for the detection of Cowdria and Ehrlichia species in ticks. Allsopp, M.T., Hattingh, C.M., Vogel, S.W., Allsopp, B.A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Nested PCR for detection and genotyping of Ehrlichia ruminantium: use in genetic diversity analysis. Martinez, D., Vachiéry, N., Stachurski, F., Kandassamy, Y., Raliniaina, M., Aprelon, R., Gueye, A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection of Cowdria ruminantium in blood and bone marrow samples from clinically normal, free-ranging Zimbabwean wild ungulates. Kock, N.D., van Vliet, A.H., Charlton, K., Jongejan, F. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of E. ruminantium Genes in DBA/2 Mice as Potential DNA Vaccine Candidates for Control of Heartwater. Simbi, B.H., Bowie, M.V., McGuire, T.C., Barbet, A.F., Mahan, S.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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