The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ehrlichia


High impact information on Ehrlichia

  • The species present were identified by species-specific PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding ehrlichia 16S ribosomal RNA [6].
  • Polymerase chain reaction products obtained with primers for E phagocytophila, E equi, and the granulocytotropic Ehrlichia revealed that seven patients were infected with the same agent [7].
  • In 1988, the Centers for Disease Control and the Oklahoma State Department of Health identified 40 patients who had a fourfold or greater change in antibody titer in response to Ehrlichia canis [8].
  • The Miyayama strain of Ehrlichia sennetsu and the Maryland and Illinois strains of Ehrlichia risticii were cultivated in a mouse macrophage cell line, separated from host cell constituents by procedures that included Renografin or Percoll gradient centrifugation, and tested after cryopreservation [9].
  • When the Ehrlichia cells were incubated for 1 hr at 34 degrees C with glutamine, significant amounts of ATP were detected [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ehrlichia

  • Dogs were experimentally inoculated with Ehrlichia canis Florida to assess the efficacy of doxycycline hyclate for the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis [2].
  • The glycoprotein genes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (1,644 bp) and Ehrlichia canis (2,064 bp) encode proteins of 548 to 688 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of only 61 and 73 kDa but with electrophoretic mobilities of 120 kDa (P120) and 140 kDa (P140), respectively [10].
  • An immunoreactive 38-kilodalton protein of Ehrlichia canis shares structural homology and iron-binding capacity with the ferric ion-binding protein family [11].
  • Protective studies were conducted with mice by using recombinantly produced antigens, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-fractionated antigens, and a monoclonal antibody specific to the 28-kDa antigen of Ehrlichia risticii [12].
  • A substantial elevation of nitrite levels indicative of NO production occurred in cultures of Cowdria ruminantium-infected bovine pulmonary endothelial cells (BPEC) incubated in medium alone [13].

Biological context of Ehrlichia


Anatomical context of Ehrlichia


Gene context of Ehrlichia

  • First, E. chaffeensis avoided stimulation of or repressed the transcription of cytokines involved in the early innate immune response and cell-mediated immune response to intracellular microbes, such as the interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 genes, which might make Ehrlichia a stealth organism for the macrophage [23].
  • The major antigenic protein 2 (MAP2) homolog of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was cloned and expressed [24].
  • The response of PBMC collected from cattle immunized with killed Cowdria to MAP1, MAP1-B, MAP2 and to a lysate of Cowdria was characterized in vitro [25].
  • To verify this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire gyrA gene of the quinolone-susceptible species Ehrlichia sennetsu and designed specific primers to amplify and sequence the QRDR of four other Ehrlichia species as well as the closely related species Cowdria ruminantium [26].
  • Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein gene (map1) variants are not geographically constrained and show no evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ehrlichia


  1. Highly conserved regions of the immunodominant major surface protein 2 of the genogroup II ehrlichial pathogen Anaplasma marginale are rich in naturally derived CD4+ T lymphocyte epitopes that elicit strong recall responses. Brown, W.C., McGuire, T.C., Zhu, D., Lewin, H.A., Sosnow, J., Palmer, G.H. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Doxycycline hyclate treatment of experimental canine ehrlichiosis followed by challenge inoculation with two Ehrlichia canis strains. Breitschwerdt, E.B., Hegarty, B.C., Hancock, S.I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning of the gene encoding the 44-kilodalton antigen of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and characterization of the humoral response. Ijdo, J.W., Sun, W., Zhang, Y., Magnarelli, L.A., Fikrig, E. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Rolain, J.M., Maurin, M., Bryskier, A., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Citrate synthase gene sequence: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis and identification of Ehrlichia. Inokuma, H., Brouqui, P., Drancourt, M., Raoult, D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. Buller, R.S., Arens, M., Hmiel, S.P., Paddock, C.D., Sumner, J.W., Rikhisa, Y., Unver, A., Gaudreault-Keener, M., Manian, F.A., Liddell, A.M., Schmulewitz, N., Storch, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the upper Midwest United States. A new species emerging? Bakken, J.S., Dumler, J.S., Chen, S.M., Eckman, M.R., Van Etta, L.L., Walker, D.H. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1988. Eng, T.R., Harkess, J.R., Fishbein, D.B., Dawson, J.E., Greene, C.N., Redus, M.A., Satalowich, F.T. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Energy metabolism of monocytic Ehrlichia. Weiss, E., Williams, J.C., Dasch, G.A., Kang, Y.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Glycosylation of homologous immunodominant proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. McBride, J.W., Yu, X.J., Walker, D.H. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. An immunoreactive 38-kilodalton protein of Ehrlichia canis shares structural homology and iron-binding capacity with the ferric ion-binding protein family. Doyle, C.K., Zhang, X., Popov, V.L., McBride, J.W. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of the protective 44-kilodalton recombinant antigen of Ehrlichia risticii. Shankarappa, B., Dutta, S.K., Mattingly-Napier, B. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitric oxide is produced by Cowdria ruminantium-infected bovine pulmonary endothelial cells in vitro and is stimulated by gamma interferon. Mutunga, M., Preston, P.M., Sumption, K.J. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Essential role for humoral immunity during Ehrlichia infection in immunocompetent mice. Yager, E., Bitsaktsis, C., Nandi, B., McBride, J.W., Winslow, G. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Exploitation of interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Akkoyunlu, M., Malawista, S.E., Anguita, J., Fikrig, E. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a functional msp2 gene that is distinct from p44. Lin, Q., Rikihisa, Y., Felek, S., Wang, X., Massung, R.F., Woldehiwet, Z. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of 16S rRNA and 51-kilodalton antigen gene and transmission in mice of Ehrlichia risticii in virgulate trematodes from Elimia livescens snails in Ohio. Kanter, M., Mott, J., Ohashi, N., Fried, B., Reed, S., Lin, Y.C., Rikihisa, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of the SF agent, an Ehrlichia sp. isolated from the fluke Stellantchasmus falcatus, by 16S rRNA base sequence, serological, and morphological analyses. Wen, B., Rikihisa, Y., Yamamoto, S., Kawabata, N., Fuerst, P.A. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: increased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Ismail, N., Stevenson, H.L., Walker, D.H. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Ehrlichial diseases of humans: emerging tick-borne infections. Dumler, J.S., Bakken, J.S. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Ehrlichiosis in Kentucky. Salgado, J.H., Evans, M.E., Hoven, A.D., Noble, R.C. The Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. The pathogenesis of heartwater. Du Plessis, J.L., Malan, L., Kowalski, Z.E. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Survival strategy of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia chaffeensis: novel modulation of immune response and host cell cycles. Zhang, J.Z., Sinha, M., Luxon, B.A., Yu, X.J. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of a gene encoding the major antigenic protein 2 homolog of ehrlichia chaffeensis and potential application for serodiagnosis. Alleman, A.R., Barbet, A.F., Bowie, M.V., Sorenson, H.L., Wong, S.J., Bélanger, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of cellular responses to native and recombinant proteins of Cowdria ruminantium. Totté, P., McKeever, D., Jongejan, F., Barbet, A., Mahan, S.M., Mwangi, D., Bensaid, A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. DNA gyrase-mediated natural resistance to fluoroquinolones in Ehrlichia spp. Maurin, M., Abergel, C., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein gene (map1) variants are not geographically constrained and show no evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure. Allsopp, M.T., Dorfling, C.M., Maillard, J.C., Bensaid, A., Haydon, D.T., van Heerden, H., Allsopp, B.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in New York. Wallace, B.J., Brady, G., Ackman, D.M., Wong, S.J., Jacquette, G., Lloyd, E.E., Birkhead, G.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Reisolation of Ehrlichia canis from blood and tissues of dogs after doxycycline treatment. Iqbal, Z., Rikihisa, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Ehrlichia chaffeensis variable-length PCR target: an antigen-expressing gene that exhibits interstrain variation. Sumner, J.W., Childs, J.E., Paddock, C.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. DNA vaccination with map1 gene followed by protein boost augments protection against challenge with Cowdria ruminantium, the agent of heartwater. Nyika, A., Barbet, A.F., Burridge, M.J., Mahan, S.M. Vaccine (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. The 120 kDa outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia chaffeensis: preferential expression on dense-core cells and gene expression in Escherichia coli associated with attachment and entry. Popov, V.L., Yu, X., Walker, D.H. Microb. Pathog. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities