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Gene Review

r  -  rudimentary

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: ACT, CAD, CAD protein, CG18572, CG4601, ...
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Disease relevance of r

  • This residue corresponds to Glu780 in the Escherichia coli enzyme (Glu1153 in hamster CAD) and is universally conserved among CPSases [1].

High impact information on r

  • Maternally-derived cad protein in the anterior region of embryos interferes with head morphogenesis, showing that cad mRNA suppression by Bcd is an important control event during early Drosophila embryogenesis [2].
  • The Bombyx cad protein was not detected in the ovary and the first 9 hours of eggs, but was first detected evenly during cellular blastoderm stage [3].
  • The nucleotide sequence of csp2 is identical with that of csp1 except for a 72-base insert which introduces a stop codon into the coding sequence, which would be predicted to result in a truncated protein 3.3 kDa smaller than Csp1 [4].
  • Revision in sequence of CAD aspartate transcarbamylase domain of Drosophila [5].
  • The Drosophila CAD gene, also known as rudimentary, encodes a protein that carries out the first three enzymatic steps of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of r

  • In Escherichia coli, ATCase is a functionally independent, oligomeric enzyme; in hamster, it is part of a trifunctional protein complex, designated CAD, that includes the preceding and subsequent enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and dihydroorotase) [6].

Biological context of r


Associations of r with chemical compounds


Other interactions of r

  • In fungi, DHO and OPRT cluster respectively with the corresponding proteobacterial counterparts [11].


  1. A mutation that uncouples allosteric regulation of carbamyl phosphate synthetase in Drosophila. Simmons, A.J., Rawls, J.M., Piskur, J., Davidson, J.N. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequence interval within the PEST motif of Bicoid is important for translational repression of caudal mRNA in the anterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Niessing, D., Dostatni, N., Jäckle, H., Rivera-Pomar, R. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A maternal homeobox gene, Bombyx caudal, forms both mRNA and protein concentration gradients spanning anteroposterior axis during gastrulation. Xu, X., Xu, P.X., Suzuki, Y. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a novel cysteine string protein variant and expression of cysteine string proteins in non-neuronal cells. Chamberlain, L.H., Burgoyne, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Revision in sequence of CAD aspartate transcarbamylase domain of Drosophila. Davidson, J.N., Kern, C.B. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular evolution of enzyme structure: construction of a hybrid hamster/Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. Major, J.G., Wales, M.E., Houghton, J.E., Maley, J.A., Davidson, J.N., Wild, J.R. J. Mol. Evol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. The dhod gene and deduced structure of mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. Rawls, J., Kirkpatrick, R., Yang, J., Lacy, L. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of the Drosophila melanogaster Protein, Enhancer of Rudimentary, by Casein Kinase II. Gelsthorpe, M.E., Tan, Z., Phillips, A., Eissenberg, J.C., Miller, A., Wallace, J., Tsubota, S.I. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of the junction between the glutamine amidotransferase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase domains of the mammalian CAD protein. Maley, J.A., Davidson, J.N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular characterization of a Dictyostelium discoideum gene encoding a multifunctional enzyme of the pyrimidine pathway. Faure, M., Camonis, J.H., Jacquet, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Evolutionary implications of the mosaic pyrimidine-biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. Nara, T., Hshimoto, T., Aoki, T. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
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