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Gene Review

e(y)1  -  enhancer of yellow 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG6474, Dmel\CG6474, E(y)1, Protein enhancer of yellow 1, TAF40, ...
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Disease relevance of e(y)1

  • The latter is the main cause of dramatic underdevelopment of the ovaries and sterility of females bearing the e(y)1 mutation [1].

High impact information on e(y)1

  • Like histones H3 and H4, dTAFII42 and dTAFII62 form an intimate heterodimer by extensive hydrophobic contacts between the paired molecules [2].
  • Mutagenesis studies in combination with protein binding experiments and reconstituted transcription reactions identified two independent activation domains of BCD that target different coactivator subunits (TAFII110 and TAFII60) of the basal transcription factor IID (TFIID) [3].
  • Within the basal transcription factor complex TFIID, two specific targets, TAFII110 and TAFII60, served as coactivators to mediate transcriptional activation by these two enhancer binding proteins [4].
  • Regulation of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II requires TFIID, a multisubunit complex composed of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and at least seven tightly associated factors (TAFs) [5].
  • These results suggest that TAFIIs contribute to the activation of transcription in vivo and support the hypothesis that subunits of TFIID may serve as targets of enhancer binding proteins [6].

Biological context of e(y)1


Associations of e(y)1 with chemical compounds

  • The e(y)1(ul) mutation, induced by the insertion of Stalker into the coding region, leads to the replacement of 25 carboxy-terminal amino acids by 17 amino acids encoded by the Stalker sequences and to a decrease of the e(y)1 transcription level [1].

Physical interactions of e(y)1


Other interactions of e(y)1

  • Sequence similarities between p62/p42 and the histones H4/H3, respectively, suggest that these subunits have a functional relationship with chromatin [12].
  • We developed an approach called protease footprinting in which the broad-specificity proteases chymotrypsin and alkaline protease were used to probe binding of 32P-end-labeled TFIIB to GAL4-VP16 or TAF40 [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of e(y)1


  1. TAFII40 protein is encoded by the e(y)1 gene: biological consequences of mutations. Soldatov, A., Nabirochkina, E., Georgieva, S., Belenkaja, T., Georgiev, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Structural similarity between TAFs and the heterotetrameric core of the histone octamer. Xie, X., Kokubo, T., Cohen, S.L., Mirza, U.A., Hoffmann, A., Chait, B.T., Roeder, R.G., Nakatani, Y., Burley, S.K. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA template and activator-coactivator requirements for transcriptional synergism by Drosophila bicoid. Sauer, F., Hansen, S.K., Tjian, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Sauer, F., Hansen, S.K., Tjian, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and expression of Drosophila TAFII60 and human TAFII70 reveal conserved interactions with other subunits of TFIID. Weinzierl, R.O., Ruppert, S., Dynlacht, B.D., Tanese, N., Tjian, R. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. TAFII mutations disrupt Dorsal activation in the Drosophila embryo. Zhou, J., Zwicker, J., Szymanski, P., Levine, M., Tjian, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The novel transcription factor e(y)2 interacts with TAF(II)40 and potentiates transcription activation on chromatin templates. Georgieva, S., Nabirochkina, E., Dilworth, F.J., Eickhoff, H., Becker, P., Tora, L., Georgiev, P., Soldatov, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. p53 transcriptional activation mediated by coactivators TAFII40 and TAFII60. Thut, C.J., Chen, J.L., Klemm, R., Tjian, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Protease footprinting reveals a surface on transcription factor TFIIB that serves as an interface for activators and coactivators. Hori, R., Pyo, S., Carey, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Second messenger and Ras/MAPK signalling pathways regulate CLOCK/CYCLE-dependent transcription. Weber, F., Hung, H.C., Maurer, C., Kay, S.A. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. GAGA factor and the TFIID complex collaborate in generating an open chromatin structure at the Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 promoter. Leibovitch, B.A., Lu, Q., Benjamin, L.R., Liu, Y., Gilmour, D.S., Elgin, S.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning of Drosophila TFIID subunits. Kokubo, T., Gong, D.W., Wootton, J.C., Horikoshi, M., Roeder, R.G., Nakatani, Y. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Drosophila TAFII40 interacts with both a VP16 activation domain and the basal transcription factor TFIIB. Goodrich, J.A., Hoey, T., Thut, C.J., Admon, A., Tjian, R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
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