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Chemical Compound Review

Imazapyr     2-(4-methyl-5-oxo-4-propan-2- yl-1H...

Synonyms: Arsenal, Charper, Chopper, Imazapyr acid, Arsenal 250A, ...
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Disease relevance of Arsenal

  • CONCLUSION: According to our observations, it appeared the toxic syndrome that results from a large quantity (> 100 mL) of Arsenal herbicide ingestion consists of hypotension, pulmonary dysfunction, oral mucosal and gastrointestinal irritation, and transient liver and renal dysfunction [1].
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 24-year-old white male who had been ingesting a dietary supplement (Arsenal X) for 2 weeks during his workout sessions developed acute renal failure [2].
  • The herbicide arsenal 250 NA, its technical-grade active ingredient imazapyr, and the surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP) were evaluated through genotoxicity and toxicity studies in different organisms [3].
  • Biodegradation of imazapyr by free cells of Pseudomonas fluorescene biotype II and Bacillus cereus isolated from soil [4].
  • Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures) [5].

High impact information on Arsenal


Biological context of Arsenal

  • The lack of statistical difference (p < 0.05) in macroinvertebrate community composition, chironomid deformity rate, and chironomid biomass between treatments suggests that imazapyr did not affect the macroinvertebrate community at the concentrations tested [9].
  • The results showed that arsenal, imazapyr, and NP did not cause chromosome aberration in Allium cepa nor increase the frequency of micronuclei in mice [3].
  • For the treatment of incorporation of ZJX-5 or ZJX-9 into soil, the degradation rate enhanced 3-4 fold faster than that for control samples, which showed an important value in quick decontamination of imazapyr in soil [10].

Anatomical context of Arsenal

  • Single unit thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus duration for Primary-like and Chopper units in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of the chinchilla to examine the neural correlates of temporal integration [11].
  • The results suggest that little alteration in the recovery process occurs between the auditory nerve and Primarylike, Primarylike-notch, and Chopper units, but that significant changes in the recovery process occur in Pauser-Buildup and On units [12].

Associations of Arsenal with other chemical compounds

  • In this study, we measure effective diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil samples taken from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. The measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0609 cm2/s over a range of air-filled porosity of 0.23-0.49 [13].
  • A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin [14].
  • Desorption of imazapyr and imazethapyr was nearly complete at pH 4 and higher than 60% at pH 2.8 while desorption of imazaquin was 45 and 8% at pH 4 and 2.8, respectively [15].

Gene context of Arsenal

  • The role of neurotransmission and the Chopper domain in p75 neurotrophin receptor death signaling [16].
  • Sensitivity of the ALS enzyme (target site) to imazapyr was lower for the R biotype (I50(R) = 4.28 x I50(S)) [17].
  • Imidazolinone herbicides, imazapyr and imazaquin had similar effect on in vitro ALS activity of the R and S biotypes [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arsenal


  1. Acute poisoning with a herbicide containing imazapyr (Arsenal): a report of six cases. Lee, H.L., Chen, K.W., Wu, M.H. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Wani, S., Weskamp, C., Marple, J., Spry, L. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A comparative toxicologic and genotoxic study of the herbicide arsenal, its active ingredient imazapyr, and the surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate. Grisolia, C.K., Bilich, M.R., Formigli, L.M. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Biodegradation of imazapyr by free cells of Pseudomonas fluorescene biotype II and Bacillus cereus isolated from soil. Xuedong, W., Huili, W., Defang, F. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Lee, S.Y., Brodman, B.W. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Chopper, a new death domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor that mediates rapid neuronal cell death. Coulson, E.J., Reid, K., Baca, M., Shipham, K.A., Hulett, S.M., Kilpatrick, T.J., Bartlett, P.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A comparison between mouse and fish micronucleus test using cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C and various pesticides. Grisolia, C.K. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Enantiomeric separation of imidazolinone herbicides using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Lin, K., Xu, C., Zhou, S., Liu, W., Gan, J. Chirality (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on benthic macroinvertebrates in a logged pond cypress dome. Fowlkes, M.D., Michael, J.L., Crisman, T.L., Prenger, J.P. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Biodegradation of imazapyr in typical soils in Zhejiang Province, China. Wang, X.D., Zhou, S.M., Wang, H.L., Fan, D.F. Journal of environmental sciences (China). (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Neural correlates of temporal integration in the cochlear nucleus of the chinchilla. Clock, A.E., Salvi, R.J., Saunders, S.S., Powers, N.L. Hear. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Recovery from short-term adaptation in single neurons in the cochlear nucleus. Boettcher, F.A., Salvi, R.J., Saunders, S.S. Hear. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Measurement of effective air diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil cores. Bartelt-Hunt, S.L., Smith, J.A. J. Contam. Hydrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague. Seery, D.B., Biggins, D.E., Montenieri, J.A., Enscore, R.E., Tanda, D.T., Gage, K.L. J. Med. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction of imidazolinone herbicides with soil humic acids. Experimental results and molecular modeling. Nègre, M., Schulten, H.R., Gennari, M., Vindrola, D. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of neurotransmission and the Chopper domain in p75 neurotrophin receptor death signaling. Coulson, E.J., Reid, K., Shipham, K.M., Morley, S., Kilpatrick, T.J., Bartlett, P.F. Prog. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Herbicide resistance in Aster squamatus conferred by a less sensitive form of acetolactate synthase. Osuna, M.D., Fischer, A.J., De Prado, R. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant Monochoria vaginalis in Korean rice culture. Kuk, Y.I., Jung, H.I., Kwon, O.D., Lee, d.o. .J., Burgos, N.R., Guh, J.O. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of ELISA immunoassay kits as a complement to HPLC analysis of imazapyr and triclopyr in water samples from forest watersheds. Fischer, J.B., Michael, J.L. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1997) [Pubmed]
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