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Gene Review

Trl  -  Trithorax-like

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Adf-2, Adf-2-519, Adf2, Adh transcription factor 2, CG33261, ...
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Disease relevance of Trl


High impact information on Trl


Biological context of Trl


Anatomical context of Trl

  • Thereafter, both GAGA proteins are present in nearly equal amounts throughout development; in larval salivary gland nuclei they colocalize completely to specific regions along the euchromatic arms of the polytene chromosomes [8].
  • Mouse unfertilized eggs and one-cell and two-cell embryos display a GAGA box-binding activity of maternal origin that disappears at the four-cell stage and is also abundant in the gonads, but is barely detectable in other adult tissues [9].
  • In vivo titrations of Adf-2 activity with the Adf-2 motif by transient co-transfection competitions in different Drosophila cell lines suggested that Adf-2 is a cell-specific repressor [10].

Associations of Trl with chemical compounds

  • Intron binding occurs equally frequently in last introns compared with first introns, suggesting that GAF may not only regulate transcription initiation, but possibly also elongation [11].
  • Functional mapping of the GAGA factor assigns its transcriptional activity to the C-terminal glutamine-rich domain [12].
  • The affinity of GAGA for triplexes of the purine motif, such as a d[AG(GA.TC)]22 intermolecular triplex, is significantly lower [13].

Physical interactions of Trl


Regulatory relationships of Trl

  • These observations suggest a possible mechanism of how Trl-GAGA plays a role in maintaining the repressed state of target genes involving lolal, which may function as a mediator to recruit PcG complexes [18].
  • tramtrack 69 (TTK69) is known to repress GAGA-mediated activation of the eve promoter in S2 cells [19].
  • Moreover, a fusion protein in which the POZ/BTB domain of GAGA is replaced by that of TTK69 is not capable of activating the eve promoter but efficiently represses GAGA-dependent activation [19].

Other interactions of Trl

  • In order to understand how Trl-GAGA functions in PcG context, we have looked for the interactors of this protein [18].
  • Here, we show that mutant alleles of Trl, dsap18 and drpd3/hdac1 enhance A6-to-A5 transformation indicating a contribution to the regulation of Abd-B expression at A6 [20].
  • Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element [7].
  • The first 245 residues of GAGA, including the POZ domain, are necessary and sufficient to bind dSAP18 [14].
  • The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trl

  • Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA [22].
  • Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes [22].
  • We purified Adf-2 through multiple rounds of sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography [10].
  • Moreover, a simple synthetic GAG sequence is sufficient to bind GAF in vitro . Here we directly compare the affinity of GAF for different sequence elements by immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift analysis [23].
  • The DNA sequence C/AGAGCGC/AGA, related to binding sites for GAF and Zeste transcription factors, was selected from a pool of degenerate PCR fragments for binding to the cytoplasmic protein of Drosophila preblastoderm embryos [24].


  1. ATP-dependent nucleosome disruption at a heat-shock promoter mediated by binding of GAGA transcription factor. Tsukiyama, T., Becker, P.B., Wu, C. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Chromatin profiling using targeted DNA adenine methyltransferase. van Steensel, B., Delrow, J., Henikoff, S. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcription factors that activate the Ultrabithorax promoter in developmentally staged extracts. Biggin, M.D., Tjian, R. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The Trithorax-like gene encodes the Drosophila GAGA factor. Farkas, G., Gausz, J., Galloni, M., Reuter, G., Gyurkovics, H., Karch, F. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila FACT contributes to Hox gene expression through physical and functional interactions with GAGA factor. Shimojima, T., Okada, M., Nakayama, T., Ueda, H., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., Handa, H., Hirose, S. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Co-localization of Polycomb protein and GAGA factor on regulatory elements responsible for the maintenance of homeotic gene expression. Strutt, H., Cavalli, G., Paro, R. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor. Faucheux, M., Roignant, J.Y., Netter, S., Charollais, J., Antoniewski, C., Théodore, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Multiple isoforms of GAGA factor, a critical component of chromatin structure. Benyajati, C., Mueller, L., Xu, N., Pappano, M., Gao, J., Mosammaparast, M., Conklin, D., Granok, H., Craig, C., Elgin, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. A developmentally regulated GAGA box-binding factor and Sp1 are required for transcription of the hsp70.1 gene at the onset of mouse zygotic genome activation. Bevilacqua, A., Fiorenza, M.T., Mangia, F. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and purification of Adh distal promoter factor 2, Adf-2, a cell-specific and promoter-specific repressor in Drosophila. Benyajati, C., Ewel, A., McKeon, J., Chovav, M., Juan, E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Genomewide analysis of Drosophila GAGA factor target genes reveals context-dependent DNA binding. van Steensel, B., Delrow, J., Bussemaker, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional mapping of the GAGA factor assigns its transcriptional activity to the C-terminal glutamine-rich domain. Vaquero, A., Espinás, M.L., Azorin, F., Bernueś, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The GAGA factor of Drosophila binds triple-stranded DNA. Jiménez-García, E., Vaquero, A., Espinás, M.L., Soliva, R., Orozco, M., Bernués, J., Azorín, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The GAGA factor of Drosophila interacts with SAP18, a Sin3-associated polypeptide. Espinás, M.L., Canudas, S., Fanti, L., Pimpinelli, S., Casanova, J., Azorín, F. EMBO Rep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. The enhancer-blocking activity of the Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex requires GAGA-factor-binding sites. Schweinsberg, S., Hagstrom, K., Gohl, D., Schedl, P., Kumar, R.P., Mishra, R., Karch, F. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure of a polycomb response element and in vitro binding of polycomb group complexes containing GAGA factor. Horard, B., Tatout, C., Poux, S., Pirrotta, V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The GAGA protein of Drosophila is phosphorylated by CK2. Bonet, C., Fernández, I., Aran, X., Bernués, J., Giralt, E., Azorín, F. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Trl-GAGA directly interacts with lola like and both are part of the repressive complex of Polycomb group of genes. Mishra, K., Chopra, V.S., Srinivasan, A., Mishra, R.K. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Repression by TTK69 of GAGA-mediated activation occurs in the absence of TTK69 binding to DNA and solely requires the contribution of the POZ/BTB domain of TTK69. Pagans, S., Piñeyro, D., Kosoy, A., Bernués, J., Azorín, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. dSAP18 and dHDAC1 contribute to the functional regulation of the Drosophila Fab-7 element. Canudas, S., Pérez, S., Fanti, L., Pimpinelli, S., Singh, N., Hanes, S.D., Azorín, F., Espinás, M.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor. Salvaing, J., Lopez, A., Boivin, A., Deutsch, J.S., Peronnet, F. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology. Katsani, K.R., Hajibagheri, M.A., Verrijzer, C.P. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. GAGA factor binding to DNA via a single trinucleotide sequence element. Wilkins, R.C., Lis, J.T. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Novel DNA-binding protein from Drosophila embryos identified by binding site selection. Todorović, V., Kojić, S., Vujanac, M., Savić, A., Stefanović, D. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
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