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Gene Review

Sgs3  -  Salivary gland secretion 3

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 68C GII, CG11720, DMSGS378, Dmel\CG11720, Glue, ...
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High impact information on Sgs3

  • We have examined the transcriptional activity of the Formosa sgs3 glue gene reinserted in the Drosophila genome in transposons containing various arrangements of its natural flanking sequences [1].
  • Thus the normal product of the l(1)npr-1 gene is required for regression of the 68C puff, and the l(1)npr-1 gene product allows expression of the Sgs-3 gene by interacting, either directly or indirectly, with DNA sequences near this glue protein gene [2].
  • The 68C locus in the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands is puffed during the last half of the third larval instar and harbors the structural gene for sgs3, one of the glue polypeptides synthesized by the glands during this period [3].
  • The Drosophila salivary gland secretion protein gene, Sgs3, has a consensus TATA sequence and gives rise to abundant stage and tissue-specific transcripts [4].
  • Drosophila Sgs3 TATA: effects of point mutations on expression in vivo and protein binding in vitro with staged nuclear extracts [4].

Biological context of Sgs3


Associations of Sgs3 with chemical compounds

  • This transition is prevented in Drosophila larvae mutated in the ecdysone-dependent 2B5 locus, in which Sgs3 is inactive and GEBF-I, a Glue Enhancer Binding Factor, is missing [10].

Physical interactions of Sgs3

  • Mobility shift assay in the presence of an anti-Fork head antibody demonstrated that the Fork head factor interacts with the TGTTTGC box shown to be involved in tissue-specific Sgs3 expression [5].
  • We identified two regulatory elements in the upstream region of the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene which are both able to bind the ecdysone receptor (EcR/USP) and the product of the fork head gene [9].

Other interactions of Sgs3

  • In all of the experiments, the RNA products of the Sgs-3, Sgs-7, and Sgs-8 genes acted coordinately [6].
  • FKH and SEBP3 have been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of Sgs-3 and Sgs-4 [11].
  • Two new regulatory elements controlling the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene are potential ecdysone receptor and fork head binding sites [9].
  • It was further shown that each of these proteins is a part of the secreted salivary gland glue: the group IV RNA codes for the previously described sgs-3, whereas the group II and III RNAs code for the newly identified glue polypeptides sgs-8 and sgs-7 [12].
  • We have undertaken chromatin studies on transformed Drosophila strains carrying DNA sequences modified in the region of the DNase I (EC sites -750 and -600 base pairs upstream from the Sgs3 start site [13].


  1. Remote regulatory sequences of the Drosophila glue gene sgs3 as revealed by P-element transformation. Bourouis, M., Richards, G. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. A trans-acting regulatory product necessary for expression of the Drosophila melanogaster 68C glue gene cluster. Crowley, T.E., Mathers, P.H., Meyerowitz, E.M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular organization of a Drosophila puff site that responds to ecdysone. Meyerowitz, E.M., Hogness, D.S. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Drosophila Sgs3 TATA: effects of point mutations on expression in vivo and protein binding in vitro with staged nuclear extracts. Giangrande, A., Mettling, C., Martin, M., Ruiz, C., Richards, G. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila fork head factor directly controls larval salivary gland-specific expression of the glue protein gene Sgs3. Mach, V., Ohno, K., Kokubo, H., Suzuki, Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Steroid regulation of RNAs transcribed from the Drosophila 68c polytene chromosome puff. Crowley, T.E., Meyerowitz, E.M. Dev. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Sps-3 transcript levels are determined by multiple remote sequence elements. Giangrande, A., Mettling, C., Richards, G. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Drosophila glue gene Sgs-3: sequences required for puffing and transcriptional regulation. Crosby, M.A., Meyerowitz, E.M. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Two new regulatory elements controlling the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene are potential ecdysone receptor and fork head binding sites. Lehmann, M., Wattler, F., Korge, G. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. GEBF-I activates the Drosophila Sgs3 gene enhancer by altering a positioned nucleosomal core particle. Georgel, P., Dretzen, G., Jagla, K., Bellard, F., Dubrovsky, E., Calco, V., Bellard, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure and regulation of the salivary gland secretion protein gene Sgs-1 of Drosophila melanogaster. Roth, G.E., Wattler, S., Bornschein, H., Lehmann, M., Korge, G. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The structural genes for three Drosophila glue proteins reside at a single polytene chromosome puff locus. Crowley, T.E., Bond, M.W., Meyerowitz, E.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Analysis of a DNase I-hypersensitive site in transgenic Drosophila reveals a key regulatory element of Sgs3. Ramain, P., Giangrande, A., Richards, G., Bellard, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
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