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Gene Review

Sgs4  -  Salivary gland secretion 4

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12181, Dmel\CG12181, EG:96G10.6, SGS-4, SGS4, ...
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Disease relevance of Sgs4

  • Another strain, which has multiple 5' lesions, is severely reduced in Sgs-4 expression and in the DNase hypersensitivity of the upstream region [1].

High impact information on Sgs4


Biological context of Sgs4

  • For Sgs-4, we have previously demonstrated that its strictly tissue and stage-specific expression is the result of combined action of the ecdysone receptor and secretion enhancer binding proteins (SEBPs) [7].
  • Sgs-4 upstream sequences, unchanged or recombined with sequences from differently expressed alleles, were fused with Sgs-4 coding and downstream sequences or with the coding sequence of the viral oncogene v-mil [8].
  • Naturally occurring mutations of the Sgs-4 promoter region diminish both the level of Sgs-4 expression and the puff size; in null-producers no puff is formed [8].
  • The results obtained show that significant nucleotide sequence alterations are accumulated within the Sgs-4 coding and 3' untranslated region of the variant strain, thus suggesting a possible role of these sequences in the Sgs-4 dosage compensation [9].
  • Molecular characterization of a Drosophila melanogaster variant strain defective in the Sgs-4 gene dosage compensation [9].

Anatomical context of Sgs4


Associations of Sgs4 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Sgs4

  • FKH and SEBP3 have been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of Sgs-3 and Sgs-4 [13].
  • Surprisingly, in the case of the Sgs-4 gene this response also requires a direct contribution of the 20E-receptor complex [14].
  • We have transformed Drosophila with a hybrid gene consisting of the sgs-4 promoter sequence and the coding sequence for a variant (LCP-f2) of LCP-2 [15].
  • The molecular organization of the dunce gene of Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be particularly complex, with two divergently transcribed genes, Sgs-4 and Pig-1, nested within its 79 kb intron (1) [16].
  • Five binding sites have been identified within the intron by DNAase I footprinting and a core consensus sequence has been derived which shares some identity with the consensus binding site of the Z2 protein to the Sgs-4 regulatory region [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sgs4


  1. DNA sequence changes in an upstream DNase I-hypersensitive region are correlated with reduced gene expression. McGinnis, W., Shermoen, A.W., Heemskerk, J., Beckendorf, S.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Cohabitation of scaffold binding regions with upstream/enhancer elements of three developmentally regulated genes of D. melanogaster. Gasser, S.M., Laemmli, U.K. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Proximity-dependent enhancement of Sgs-4 gene expression in D. melanogaster. Kornher, J.S., Brutlag, D. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. A transposable element inserted just 5' to a Drosophila glue protein gene alters gene expression and chromatin structure. McGinnis, W., Shermoen, A.W., Beckendorf, S.K. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. The fork head product directly specifies the tissue-specific hormone responsiveness of the Drosophila Sgs-4 gene. Lehmann, M., Korge, G. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Ecdysone regulation of the Drosophila Sgs-4 gene is mediated by the synergistic action of ecdysone receptor and SEBP 3. Lehmann, M., Korge, G. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The helix-loop-helix proteins dAP-4 and daughterless bind both in vitro and in vivo to SEBP3 sites required for transcriptional activation of the Drosophila gene Sgs-4. King-Jones, K., Korge, G., Lehmann, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Promoter is an important determinant of developmentally regulated puffing at the Sgs-4 locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Korge, G., Heide, I., Sehnert, M., Hofmann, A. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular characterization of a Drosophila melanogaster variant strain defective in the Sgs-4 gene dosage compensation. Furia, M., Digilio, F.A., Artiaco, D., Favia, G., Polito, L.C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. An expandable gene that encodes a Drosophila glue protein is not expressed in variants lacking remote upstream sequences. Muskavitch, M.A., Hogness, D.S. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Cis-acting sequences which regulate expression of the Sgs-4 glue protein gene of Drosophila. McNabb, S.L., Beckendorf, S.K. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Steroid regulation of glue protein genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Hansson, L., Lambertsson, A. Hereditas (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure and regulation of the salivary gland secretion protein gene Sgs-1 of Drosophila melanogaster. Roth, G.E., Wattler, S., Bornschein, H., Lehmann, M., Korge, G. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Drosophila Sgs genes: stage and tissue specificity of hormone responsiveness. Lehmann, M. Bioessays (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Polarized secretion of an ectopic protein in Drosophila salivary glands in vivo. Tojo, S.J., Germeraad, S., King, D.S., Fristrom, J.W. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A new gene nested within the dunce genetic unit of Drosophila melanogaster. Furia, M., Digilio, F.A., Artiaco, D., Giordano, E., Polito, L.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Hormonal induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila is mediated by the Broad-Complex. Hodgetts, R.B., Clark, W.C., O'Keefe, S.L., Schouls, M., Crossgrove, K., Guild, G.M., von Kalm, L. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A cytological approach to the ordering of events in gene activation using the Sgs-4 locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Steiner, E.K., Eissenberg, J.C., Elgin, S.C. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular analysis of a gene in a developmentally regulated puff of Drosophila melanogaster. Muskavitch, M.A., Hogness, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
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