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Gene Review

c-raf  -  raf protein

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: raf, raf1
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Disease relevance of c-raf

  • However, only c-raf-1 occurs naturally in truncated versions, such as v-raf and v-mil in the acutely transforming retroviruses 3611-MSV and MH2. raf transformation can also be affected by point mutation, suggesting that this mechanism may activate c-raf-1 as an oncogene in carcinogenesis [1].

High impact information on c-raf

  • R-ras interacts with rasGAP, neurofibromin and c-raf but does not regulate cell growth or differentiation [2].
  • Nucleotide sequence of Xenopus C-raf coding region [3].
  • Cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of Raf protein kinase exhibited markedly reduced sensitivity to both LPA and IGF-I, consistent with a role for endogenous Raf in glucose uptake by both growth factors [4].
  • Furthermore, we discovered that c-raf induces oocyte maturation that is inhibited by glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which we have found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of JNK [5].
  • We have previously found that a ras switch 1 domain peptide (PNC-7, residues 35-47) selectively blocks oocyte maturation induced by oncogenic (Val 12-containing) ras-p21 protein and also blocks c-raf-induced oocyte maturation [6].

Biological context of c-raf


Anatomical context of c-raf

  • METHODS: We microinjected raf dominant negative mutant mRNA (DN-raf) and the MEK-specific phosphatase, MKP-T4, either together with oncogenic p21 or c-raf mRNA, into oocytes or into oocytes incubated with insulin to determine the effects of these raf-MEK-MAP kinase pathway inhibitors [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of c-raf

  • PURPOSE: We have previously found that microinjection of activated MEK (mitogen activated kinase kinase) and ERK (mitogen-activated protein; MAP kinase) fails to induce oocyte maturation, but that maturation, induced by oncogenic ras-p21 and insulin-activated cell ras-p21, is blocked by peptides from the ras-binding domain of raf [5].


  1. raf oncogenes in carcinogenesis. Storm, S.M., Brennscheidt, U., Sithanandam, G., Rapp, U.R. Critical reviews in oncogenesis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. R-ras interacts with rasGAP, neurofibromin and c-raf but does not regulate cell growth or differentiation. Rey, I., Taylor-Harris, P., van Erp, H., Hall, A. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleotide sequence of Xenopus C-raf coding region. Le Guellec, R., Le Guellec, K., Paris, J., Philippe, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the intracellular signalling pathways that underlie growth-factor-stimulated glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for ras- and rho-dependent pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Thomson, F.J., Jess, T.J., Moyes, C., Plevin, R., Gould, G.W. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of oocyte maturation by jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) on the oncogenic ras-p21 pathway is dependent on the raf-MEK signal transduction pathway. Chie, L., Amar, S., Kung, H.F., Lin, M.C., Chen, H., Chung, D.L., Adler, V., Ronai, Z., Friedman, F.K., Robinson, R.C., Kovac, C., Brandt-Rauf, P.W., Yamaizumi, Z., Michl, J., Pincus, M.R. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of the site of inhibition of mitogenic signaling by oncogenic ras-p21 by a ras effector peptide. Chie, L., Friedman, F.K., Kung, H.F., Lin, M.C., Chung, D., Pincus, M.R. J. Protein Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Xenopus c-raf proto-oncogene: cloning and expression during oogenesis and early development. Le Guellec, R., Couturier, A., Le Guellec, K., Paris, J., Le Fur, N., Philippe, M. Biol. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Two dual specificity kinases are preferentially induced by wild-type rather than by oncogenic RAS-P21 in Xenopus oocytes. Qu, Y., Adler, V., Chu, T., Platica, O., Michl, J., Pestka, S., Izotova, L., Boutjdir, M., Pincus, M.R. Front. Biosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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