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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Hem  -  HEM-protein

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5837, Dmel\CG5837, HEM2, Hem1, Kette, ...
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Disease relevance of Hem


High impact information on Hem

  • In line with these observations, a kette phenocopy can be obtained following directed expression of mutant DCDC42 or DRAC1 in the CNS midline [2].
  • In addition, kette affects the cell morphology of mesodermal and epidermal derivatives, which show an abnormal actin cytoskeleton [2].
  • In addition, the kette mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by expression of an activated DRAC1 transgene [2].
  • WAVE function is regulated through a protein complex containing Sra1, Kette and Abi [3].
  • Sra-1 interacts with Kette and Wasp and is required for neuronal and bristle development in Drosophila [4].

Biological context of Hem


Anatomical context of Hem

  • We have identified Kette as an essential component for myoblast fusion [5].
  • Following knockdown of sra-1 function in motoneurons, we noted abnormal neuromuscular junctions similar to what we determined for hypomorphic kette mutations [4].
  • Some Kette protein is localized at the membrane and accumulates at focal contact sites [6].
  • Here we show that the Drosophila proteins SCAR, CYFIP and Kette, orthologs of WAVE/SCAR complex components, all show strong accumulation in axons of the central nervous system and indeed form a complex in vivo [7].

Other interactions of Hem

  • We also show that RNAi of three proteins (kette, Abi, and Sra-1) known to copurify with and inhibit SCAR in vitro leads to SCAR degradation, revealing a novel function of this protein complex in SCAR stability [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In Drosophila cells, SCAR is regulated by Abi, Kette, and Sra1, components of a conserved regulatory SCAR complex [9].


  1. The HEM proteins: a novel family of tissue-specific transmembrane proteins expressed from invertebrates through mammals with an essential function in oogenesis. Baumgartner, S., Martin, D., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Sutton, J., Desai, A., Huang, I., Kato, K., Hromas, R. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. The Drosophila HEM-2/NAP1 homolog KETTE controls axonal pathfinding and cytoskeletal organization. Hummel, T., Leifker, K., Klämbt, C. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Abi activates WASP to promote sensory organ development. Bogdan, S., Stephan, R., Löbke, C., Mertens, A., Klämbt, C. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Sra-1 interacts with Kette and Wasp and is required for neuronal and bristle development in Drosophila. Bogdan, S., Grewe, O., Strunk, M., Mertens, A., Klämbt, C. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. kette and blown fuse interact genetically during the second fusion step of myogenesis in Drosophila. Schröter, R.H., Lier, S., Holz, A., Bogdan, S., Klämbt, C., Beck, L., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Kette regulates actin dynamics and genetically interacts with Wave and Wasp. Bogdan, S., Klämbt, C. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. WAVE/SCAR, a multifunctional complex coordinating different aspects of neuronal connectivity. Schenck, A., Qurashi, A., Carrera, P., Bardoni, B., Diebold, C., Schejter, E., Mandel, J.L., Giangrande, A. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells. Rogers, S.L., Wiedemann, U., Stuurman, N., Vale, R.D. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Abi, Sra1, and Kette control the stability and localization of SCAR/WAVE to regulate the formation of actin-based protrusions. Kunda, P., Craig, G., Dominguez, V., Baum, B. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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