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Gene Review

LOC408038  -  beta-keratin

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on LOC408038


Biological context of LOC408038

  • Epidermal-dermal interactions influence morphogenesis and expression of the beta keratin gene family during development of scales in the embryonic chick [4].
  • In vivo phosphorylation studies suggested that an additional three beta keratin polypeptides were present as phosphoproteins [4].
  • However, the present study of beta keratin gene expression during avian epidermal differentiation contributes new information with which to investigate the role of tissue interactions in this process [4].
  • Polyclonal antiserum made against two of the beta keratin polypeptides was used for immunohistochemical and immunogold electron-microscopic analysis of beta keratin tissue distribution [4].

Anatomical context of LOC408038

  • Serial cultivation of chicken keratinocytes, a composite cell type that accumulates lipids and synthesizes a novel beta-keratin [5].
  • Furthermore, we find that the embryonic layers of the skin overlying the anterior metatarsal region of birds homozygous for the mutation "scaleless" (sc/sc), which completely lack scutate scales, produce the same members of the beta keratin family, beta 1-7, as the embryonic layers and beta strata of normal scutate scales [3].
  • The mixed bundles of alpha and beta keratin filaments were closely associated with desmosomes in the lower stratum intermedium and with electron-dense aggregates in the cytoplasm of cells in the outer stratum intermedium [6].
  • In late embryonic stages (25-26 to hatching), beta-keratin occurs only in the upper suprabasal cells, in prekeratinized and keratinized layers, whereas alpha-keratin bundles (tonofilaments) remain only in the lowest layers [7].
  • While the antibody labels a mature form of beta-keratin incorporated in large filaments, the autoradiographic analysis shows that beta-keratin is produced within the first 30 min in ribosomes, and is later packed into large filaments [8].

Associations of LOC408038 with chemical compounds

  • The present observations suggest that both beta-keratin and denser matrix proteins, possibly incorporating histidine, are packed into growing setae [9].
  • Proline incorporation occurs mainly in the growing centers, and is more specifically associated with beta-keratin synthesis [10].
  • Some evidence suggests that at least some proteins contained within beta-keratin filaments are rich in glycine and resemble some keratin-associated proteins present in mammalian corneous derivatives [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC408038


  1. Specific activation in jun-transformed avian fibroblasts of a gene (bkj) related to the avian beta-keratin gene family. Hartl, M., Bister, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of beta keratin genes during skin development in normal and sc/sc chick embryos. Shames, R.B., Sawyer, R.H. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Region-specific patterns of beta keratin expression during avian skin development. Knapp, L.W., Shames, R.B., Barnes, G.L., Sawyer, R.H. Dev. Dyn. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification, expression, and localization of beta keratin gene products during development of avian scutate scales. Shames, R.B., Knapp, L.W., Carver, W.E., Sawyer, R.H. Differentiation (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Serial cultivation of chicken keratinocytes, a composite cell type that accumulates lipids and synthesizes a novel beta-keratin. Vanhoutteghem, A., Londero, T., Ghinea, N., Djian, P. Differentiation (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Keratinization of the outer surface of the avian scutate scale: interrelationship of alpha and beta keratin filaments in a cornifying tissue. Shames, R.B., Knapp, L.W., Carver, W.E., Washington, L.D., Sawyer, R.H. Cell Tissue Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Keratinization and ultrastructure of the epidermis of late embryonic stages in the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Alibardi, L., Thompson, M.B. J. Anat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of beta-keratins and associated proteins in adult and regenerating epidermis of lizards. Alibardi, L., Spisni, E., Frassanito, A.G., Toni, M. Tissue & cell. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Ultrastructural autoradiographic and immunocytochemical analysis of setae formation and keratinization in the digital pads of the gecko Hemidactylus turcicus (Gekkonidae, Reptilia). Alibardi, L. Tissue & cell. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunolocalization and characterization of beta-keratins in growing epidermis of chelonians. Alibardi, L., Toni, M. Tissue & cell. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Scale keratin in lizard epidermis reveals amino acid regions homologous with avian and mammalian epidermal proteins. Alibardi, L., Dalla Valle, L., Toffolo, V., Toni, M. The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. (2006) [Pubmed]
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