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Gene Review

MDM1  -  Mdm1 nuclear protein homolog (mouse)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Nuclear protein MDM1
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Disease relevance of MDM1

  • Interestingly, hMDM infected with HIV-1 produced significantly less cysteine than uninfected cells following stimulation with TNF-alpha [1].
  • The antibacterial effect of CpG-ODN in human macrophages was specific for M. tuberculosis when compared to other intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin. These data indicate that CpG-ODN can improve the ability of hMDM to contain growth of virulent M. tuberculosis [2].
  • While it has been shown previously that CpG-ODN inhibit growth of Mycobacterium avium in murine and human macrophages, we now report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth can be inhibited by CpG-ODN treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) [2].

High impact information on MDM1

  • Together with the observed MITE methylation pattern, the detection of low levels of transcripts, but not small RNAs, corresponding to Kiddo and MDM1 suggested that RNA-dependent DNA methylation is induced by MITE transcripts [3].
  • Picomolar concentrations of gp120 were found to stimulate cysteine release from human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) in amounts sufficient to injure cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons [1].
  • TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, known to be increased in HIV-encephalitic brains, as well as a cellular product of cytokine stimulation, ceramide, were also shown to induce release of cysteine from hMDM in a dose-dependent manner [1].
  • Strikingly, the MDM-1 family has a 9-bp terminus identical to that of a rice Mutator-like element ( MULE-9) and the MDM-2 family has an 8-bp terminus identical to that of the maize autonomous Mutator element MuDR [4].

Biological context of MDM1

  • MDM-1 and MDM-2 bear hallmarks of Mutator elements, such as long terminal inverted repeats (LTIRs), 9-bp target-site duplications (TSDs), and putative transposase binding sites [4].


  1. Cytokine-stimulated, but not HIV-infected, human monocyte-derived macrophages produce neurotoxic levels of l -cysteine. Yeh, M.W., Kaul, M., Zheng, J., Nottet, H.S., Thylin, M., Gendelman, H.E., Lipton, S.A. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. CpG oligonucleotides partially inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not Salmonella or Listeria, in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Wang, J.P., Hayashi, T., Datta, S.K., Kornbluth, R.S., Raz, E., Guiney, D.G. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A two-edged role for the transposable element Kiddo in the rice ubiquitin2 promoter. Yang, G., Lee, Y.H., Jiang, Y., Shi, X., Kertbundit, S., Hall, T.C. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. MDM-1 and MDM-2: two mutator-derived MITE families in rice. Yang, G., Hall, T.C. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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