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Gene Review

TAS1R1  -  taste receptor, type 1, member 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G-protein coupled receptor 70, GM148, GPR70, T1R1, TR1, ...
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High impact information on TAS1R1

  • Cyclamate does not activate the T1R1/T1R3 receptor by itself, but potentiates the receptor's response to l-glutamate [1].
  • Incubation of passively adsorbed laminin-5r with the human epithelial cell line SCC12 induced exposure of 5C5 and CM6, FM3, or TR1 epitopes [2].
  • TR1 selectively enhanced LXR-mediated transcriptional activation and protein expression of ABCA1 and apoE gene expression and secretion in THP-1-derived macrophages [3].
  • These traits, along with a significant homology to the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR, 34% aa sequence identity), the taste receptor 1 (T1R1, 28%), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1, 24%), places GPRC6A in family C of the GPCRs [4].
  • During thyroid hormone synthesis GPX1, GPX3 and TR1 are up-regulated, providing the thyrocytes with considerable protection from peroxidative damage [5].

Biological context of TAS1R1

  • Complete DNA sequences of TAS1R1-, TAS1R2-, and TAS1R3-coding regions, obtained from 88 individuals of African, Asian, European, and Native American origin, revealed substantial coding and noncoding diversity: polymorphisms are common in these genes, and polymorphic sites and SNP frequencies vary widely in human populations [6].
  • A search of the human genome database led us to identify three human candidate taste receptors, hT1R1, hT1R2, and hT1R3, which contain seven transmembrane domains [7].

Associations of TAS1R1 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste [8].

Other interactions of TAS1R1

  • Two subjects were inadvertently treated according to the sequence T1-R1-T2-R2 [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TAS1R1

  • Epitopes reactive with antibodies CM6, FM3, and TR1 are also preferentially exposed on cell-associated laminin-5r, such that reactivity of these antibodies with the cell-associated form is fourfold higher than with the soluble/passively adsorbed form in ELISA assays [2].
  • It was found that knobs may be composed of either 180-bp or TR1, or both repeats, and in addition to large knobs these repeated elements may form micro clusters which are detectable only with the help of in situ hybridization [10].


  1. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors. Xu, H., Staszewski, L., Tang, H., Adler, E., Zoller, M., Li, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in expression of monoclonal antibody epitopes on laminin-5r induced by cell contact. Plopper, G., Falk-Marzillier, J., Glaser, S., Fitchmun, M., Giannelli, G., Romano, T., Jones, J.C., Quaranta, V. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A novel LXR-alpha activator identified from the natural product Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Huang, T.H., Razmovski-Naumovski, V., Salam, N.K., Duke, R.K., Tran, V.H., Duke, C.C., Roufogalis, B.D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of GPRC6A, a novel family C G-protein-coupled receptor. Wellendorph, P., Bräuner-Osborne, H. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Selenium and endocrine systems. Beckett, G.J., Arthur, J.R. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Variation in the human TAS1R taste receptor genes. Kim, U.K., Wooding, S., Riaz, N., Jorde, L.B., Drayna, D. Chem. Senses (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Three sweet receptor genes are clustered in human chromosome 1. Liao, J., Schultz, P.G. Mamm. Genome (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste. Li, X., Staszewski, L., Xu, H., Durick, K., Zoller, M., Adler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Bioequivalence assessment of a single 5 mg/day testosterone transdermal system versus two 2.5 mg/day systems in hypogonadal men. Wilson, D.E., Meikle, A.W., Boike, S.C., Fairless, A.J., Etheredge, R.C., Jorkasky, D.K. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Complex structure of knobs and centromeric regions in maize chromosomes. Ananiev, E.V., Phillips, R.L., Rines, H.W. Tsitol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
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