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Gene Review

TAS1R2  -  taste receptor, type 1, member 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G-protein coupled receptor 71, GPR71, Sweet taste receptor T1R2, T1R2, TR2, ...
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High impact information on TAS1R2

  • We now report the behavioral and physiological characterization of T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3 knockout mice [1].
  • The G protein coupling requires the transmembrane domain of T1R2 [2].
  • Complete DNA sequences of TAS1R1-, TAS1R2-, and TAS1R3-coding regions, obtained from 88 individuals of African, Asian, European, and Native American origin, revealed substantial coding and noncoding diversity: polymorphisms are common in these genes, and polymorphic sites and SNP frequencies vary widely in human populations [3].
  • The ANF receptor domain of rat LRRP Ba1-651, which domain is part of the receptor family ligand binding region, shows a very high sequence homology (almost identity) to the extracellular amino-terminal domains of the mammalian sweet taste receptor T1R2 [4].
  • Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2 [5].

Biological context of TAS1R2

  • Taken together, these findings demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R3 and T1R2 and the presence of multiple ligand binding sites on the sweet taste receptor [2].

Anatomical context of TAS1R2

  • Responses of cultured cells expressing the human sweetener receptor directly parallel the psychophysical responses-water rinses remove the inhibitor from the heteromeric sweetener receptor TAS1R2-TAS1R3, which activates cells and results in the perception of strong sweetness from pure water [6].

Associations of TAS1R2 with chemical compounds

  • Second, using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that T1R2 and T1R3 combine to function as a sweet receptor, recognizing sweet-tasting molecules as diverse as sucrose, saccharin, dulcin, and acesulfame-K [7].
  • Similar to other family C G protein-coupled receptors, the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain of T1R2 is required for recognizing sweeteners, such as aspartame and neotame [2].
  • I propose that sweet proteins, contrary to small ligands, do not bind to the 'glutamate-like' pocket but stabilize the free form II of the T1R2-T1R3 receptor by attachment to a secondary binding site [8].
  • Recent studies indicate that sweet taste is mediated by a T1R2 and T1R3 receptor complex but the identity of the hypothesized polysaccharide taste receptor remains to be established [9].

Other interactions of TAS1R2

  • Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners [10].
  • All possible dimers formed by combinations of the human T1R2 and T1R3 subunits, modeled on the A (closed) or B (open) chains of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the mGluR1 template, yield four ligand binding sites for low-molecular-weight sweeteners [11].


  1. The receptors for mammalian sweet and umami taste. Zhao, G.Q., Zhang, Y., Hoon, M.A., Chandrashekar, J., Erlenbach, I., Ryba, N.J., Zuker, C.S. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors. Xu, H., Staszewski, L., Tang, H., Adler, E., Zoller, M., Li, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Variation in the human TAS1R taste receptor genes. Kim, U.K., Wooding, S., Riaz, N., Jorde, L.B., Drayna, D. Chem. Senses (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Is rat LRRP Ba1-651 a Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activated by changes in the concentration of sweet molecules? Tizzano, M., Sbarbati, A. Med. Hypotheses (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. The Heterodimeric Sweet Taste Receptor has Multiple Potential Ligand Binding Sites. Cui, M., Jiang, P., Maillet, E., Max, M., Margolskee, R.F., Osman, R. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A TAS1R receptor-based explanation of sweet 'water-taste'. Galindo-Cuspinera, V., Winnig, M., Bufe, B., Meyerhof, W., Breslin, P.A. Nature (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Nelson, G., Hoon, M.A., Chandrashekar, J., Zhang, Y., Ryba, N.J., Zuker, C.S. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Why are sweet proteins sweet? Interaction of brazzein, monellin and thaumatin with the T1R2-T1R3 receptor. Temussi, P.A. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The sixth taste? Sclafani, A. Appetite. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste. Li, X., Staszewski, L., Xu, H., Durick, K., Zoller, M., Adler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. From small sweeteners to sweet proteins: anatomy of the binding sites of the human T1R2_T1R3 receptor. Morini, G., Bassoli, A., Temussi, P.A. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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