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Gene Review

FUS9  -  constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 10

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on FUS9

  • Purified CDD (COP10, DDB1, DET1) complex also shows enhancement of E2 activity (UEA) similar to that observed with COP10 itself [1].
  • Here, we demonstrate that COP10 interacts with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) in vivo, and can enhance their activity in vitro, an activity distinct from previous characterized UEVs such as MMS2 and UEV1 [1].
  • Our data indicates that COP10 defines a possible E2 activity, thus validating the working hypothesis that the pleiotropic COP/DET/FUS group of proteins defined a protein ubiquitination pathway [2].
  • Furthermore, we observed that mutants with defects in AXR1, a protein that had been described only as a regulator of SCF(TIR1) function, also is required for other E3-mediated processes and for the COP1/COP10/CSN-mediated repression of photomorphogenesis in the dark [3].
  • Arabidopsis COP8, COP10, and COP11 genes are involved in repression of photomorphogenic development in darkness [4].

Biological context of FUS9

  • Mutations in COP1 and DET1 show the most similar genome expression profiles, while the mutations in the COP9 signalosome (CSN) and COP10 exhibit increasingly diverged genome expression profiles in both darkness and light [5].
  • During the course of work aimed at isolating a rice gene from Oryza australiensis by PCR, the oligonucleotide primers used were found to generate a fragment that showed sequence homology to the endonuclease (EN) region of the maize non-LTR retrotransposon (LINE) Cin4 [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FUS9

  • We describe here ligation-mediated PCR techniques for the isolation of sequences flanking the transposable elements En/Spm, Mu1 and Cin4 in Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana [7].


  1. Arabidopsis COP10 forms a complex with DDB1 and DET1 in vivo and enhances the activity of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes. Yanagawa, Y., Sullivan, J.A., Komatsu, S., Gusmaroli, G., Suzuki, G., Yin, J., Ishibashi, T., Saijo, Y., Rubio, V., Kimura, S., Wang, J., Deng, X.W. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Arabidopsis COP10 is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant that acts together with COP1 and the COP9 signalosome in repressing photomorphogenesis. Suzuki, G., Yanagawa, Y., Kwok, S.F., Matsui, M., Deng, X.W. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Multiple ubiquitin ligase-mediated processes require COP9 signalosome and AXR1 function. Schwechheimer, C., Serino, G., Deng, X.W. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Arabidopsis COP8, COP10, and COP11 genes are involved in repression of photomorphogenic development in darkness. Wei, N., Kwok, S.F., von Arnim, A.G., Lee, A., McNellis, T.W., Piekos, B., Deng, X.W. Plant Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of the mutational effects of the COP/DET/FUS loci on genome expression profiles reveals their overlapping yet not identical roles in regulating Arabidopsis seedling development. Ma, L., Zhao, H., Deng, X.W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Non-LTR retrotransposons (LINEs) as ubiquitous components of plant genomes. Noma, K., Ohtsubo, E., Ohtsubo, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Technical advance: display and isolation of transposon-flanking sequences starting from genomic DNA or RNA. Yephremov, A., Saedler, H. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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