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Gene Review

AMT1;1  -  ammonium transporter 1;1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on AMT1;1

  • The cDNA AMT1 contains an open reading frame of 501 amino acids and encodes a highly hydrophobic protein with 9-12 putative membrane spanning regions [1].
  • Transcript levels of AtAMT1;1, which possesses an affinity in the nanomolar range, steeply increased with ammonium uptake in roots when nitrogen nutrition became limiting, whereas those of AtAMT1;3 increased slightly, with AtAMT1;2 being more constitutively expressed [2].
  • Functional analysis of an Arabidopsis T-DNA "knockout" of the high-affinity NH4(+) transporter AtAMT1;1 [3].
  • Removal of N to increase AtAMT1;1 expression decreased high-affinity (13)NH(4)(+) influx in the mutant by 30% compared with wild-type plants, whereas low-affinity (13)NH(4)(+) influx (250 microM-10 mM NH(4)(+)) exceeded that of wild-type plants [3].
  • This result demonstrates that end products of NH4+ assimilation, rather than NH4+ itself, are responsible for regulating AtAMT1 gene expression [4].

Biological context of AMT1;1


Anatomical context of AMT1;1

  • Electrophysiological studies of Arabidopsis AtAMT1;1 expressed in oocytes revealed passive, Deltapsi-driven transport of NH(4)(+) through this protein [6].
  • Expression of AtAMT1;1 in a novel yeast mutant defective in endogenous ammonium transport and vacuolar acidification supported the above mechanism for AtAMT1;1 and revealed a central role for acid vacuoles in storage and retention of ammonia in cells [6].
  • AtAMT1;1 was plasma membrane localized and expressed in the root cortex and epidermis, including root hairs [7].

Associations of AMT1;1 with chemical compounds


  1. Identification of a high affinity NH4+ transporter from plants. Ninnemann, O., Jauniaux, J.C., Frommer, W.B. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Three functional transporters for constitutive, diurnally regulated, and starvation-induced uptake of ammonium into Arabidopsis roots. Gazzarrini, S., Lejay, L., Gojon, A., Ninnemann, O., Frommer, W.B., von Wirén, N. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional analysis of an Arabidopsis T-DNA "knockout" of the high-affinity NH4(+) transporter AtAMT1;1. Kaiser, B.N., Rawat, S.R., Siddiqi, M.Y., Masle, J., Glass, A.D. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. AtAMT1 gene expression and NH4+ uptake in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for regulation by root glutamine levels. Rawat, S.R., Silim, S.N., Kronzucker, H.J., Siddiqi, M.Y., Glass, A.D. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The regulation of nitrate and ammonium transport systems in plants. Glass, A.D., Britto, D.T., Kaiser, B.N., Kinghorn, J.R., Kronzucker, H.J., Kumar, A., Okamoto, M., Rawat, S., Siddiqi, M.Y., Unkles, S.E., Vidmar, J.J. J. Exp. Bot. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanisms of ammonium transport, accumulation, and retention in ooyctes and yeast cells expressing Arabidopsis AtAMT1;1. Wood, C.C., Porée, F., Dreyer, I., Koehler, G.J., Udvardi, M.K. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of AMT1;1 in NH4+ acquisition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mayer, M., Ludewig, U. Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular and cellular characterisation of LjAMT2;1, an ammonium transporter from the model legume Lotus japonicus. Simon-Rosin, U., Wood, C., Udvardi, M.K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Nitrogen-dependent posttranscriptional regulation of the ammonium transporter AtAMT1;1. Yuan, L., Loqué, D., Ye, F., Frommer, W.B., von Wirén, N. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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