The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Nitrogen     molecular nitrogen

Synonyms: Nitrogeno, Dinitrogen, Azote, Nitrogen-14, MOL Nitrogen, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Nitrogen

  • The soil-dwelling alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti engages in a symbiosis with legumes: S. meliloti elicits the formation of plant root nodules where it converts dinitrogen to ammonia for use by the plant in exchange for plant photosynthate [1].
  • Transport of basic amino acids by the dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 [2].
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is an obligately aerobic bacterium in which aerotolerant dinitrogen fixation requires cytochrome bd [3].
  • One pathway, which is consistent with the available data and for which there is chemical precedence, is the reduction of nitrite and NO to nitroxyl (NOH or HNO), dimerization of free nitroxyl to a dinitrogen intermediate of short half-life, and dehydration of this intermediate to form N2O [4].
  • Photoreduction of dinitrogen by heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria is of great importance ecologically and for subsistence rice agriculture [5].

High impact information on Nitrogen

  • One set of these genes encodes the subunits of nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia, and another set consists of closely linked genes also essential for nitrogen fixation [6].
  • A tight metabolic association with rhizobial bacteria allows legumes to obtain nitrogen compounds by bacterial reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonium (NH4+) [7].
  • These data indicate a severe relative phosphorus depletion in the Atlantic. We hypothesize that nitrogen versus phosphorus limitation of primary production in the present-day ocean may be closely linked to iron supply through control of dinitrogen (N2) fixation, an iron-intensive metabolic process [8].
  • Dinitrogen coordination chemistry: on the biomimetic borderlands [9].
  • Nitrogen Fixation Special Feature: Catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a single molybdenum center [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Nitrogen


Biological context of Nitrogen

  • The euryarchaeal nitrogen repressor NrpR controls the expression of the nif (nitrogen fixation) operon, resulting in full repression with ammonia, intermediate repression with alanine, and derepression with dinitrogen [16].
  • We have also performed an extensive analysis on the factors (side-on coordination of N(2) to two Zr centers, availability of the frontier orbitals with appropriate symmetry, and inflexibility of the catalyst ligand environment) that are required for successful hydrogenation of the coordinated dinitrogen [17].
  • A nitrosation mechanism is proposed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (i) Nitrosation reactions of amino acids with a primary amino group in acid media occur with dinitrogen trioxide as the main nitrosating agent [18].
  • The Mechanistically Significant Coordination Chemistry of Dinitrogen at FeMo-co, the Catalytic Site of Nitrogenase [19].
  • Their heterocysts must have a glycolipid envelope layer that limits the entry of oxygen if nitrogenase is to remain active to fix dinitrogen in an oxygen-containing milieu (the Fox+ phenotype) [5].

Anatomical context of Nitrogen


Associations of Nitrogen with other chemical compounds

  • The nitrogenase enzyme system catalyzes the ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-dependent reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia during the process of nitrogen fixation [22].
  • The methanogenic archaean Methanococcus maripaludis can use ammonia, alanine, or dinitrogen as a nitrogen source for growth [16].
  • Cyclopentadienyl substituent effects on reductive elimination reactions in group 4 metallocenes: kinetics, mechanism, and application to dinitrogen activation [23].
  • Preparation and molecular and electronic structures of iron(0) dinitrogen and silane complexes and their application to catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilation [24].
  • After the enzyme has turned over in the presence of 2H2O, an additional set of protons are potentially available for exchange, namely those that can give rise to dihydrogen during enzyme turnover or generate the hydridic dinitrogen binding site; such exchangeable protons were not observed [25].
  • Beta-X elimination is found to be especially facile for X = O2CPh, and the reaction represents an attractive component of an overall synthetic cycle for incorporation of dinitrogen-derived nitrogen atoms into organic nitrile (R-C identical with N) molecules [26].
  • Both the absence of external nitrogen and the presence of L-norvaline, an inhibitor of Arg synthesis, prevented the synthesis of Arg in the ERM and resulted in decreased activity of arginase and urease in the AM root [27].
  • Adding NaCl to cells cultured under conditions in which Gln3-Myc13 is normally nuclear, i.e. proline-grown, nitrogen-starved, Msx-, caffeine-, and rapamycin-treated wild type cells, or ure2Delta cells, results in its prompt relocalization to the cytoplasm [28].
  • We found that, under nitrogen limitation, Ynt1 phosphorylation is essential for rapid induction of nitrate assimilation genes [29].
  • Nitrogen-doped titania nanosheets with visible light response were synthesized by exfoliating a layered titanate with homogeneous nitrogen doping [30].

Gene context of Nitrogen

  • The ntcA mutant was not able to grow with nitrate or atmospheric dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source but could be grown on medium containing ammonium [31].
  • A second transcription start point for the argD gene that is not preceded by a sigma 70 consensus promoter was detected in dinitrogen-grown cultures [32].
  • Heterocyst development (which is necessary for the aerobic fixation of dinitrogen) and induction of hetR (a regulatory gene that is required for heterocyst development) were also impaired in the ntcA mutant [33].
  • In contrast, growth with dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source results in nitrogen starvation, full expression of nif and glnA, and high activity of nitrogenase [34].
  • Identification of the nifJ gene coding for pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase in dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria [35].
  • In the nla mutant, the deletion of the RING domain from NLA altered its subcellular localization, disrupted the interaction between NLA and AtUBC8 and caused the early senescence phenotype induced by low inorganic nitrogen [36].
  • GlnR expression itself was shown to be nitrogen-dependent [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nitrogen


  1. A dual-genome Symbiosis Chip for coordinate study of signal exchange and development in a prokaryote-host interaction. Barnett, M.J., Toman, C.J., Fisher, R.F., Long, S.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Transport of basic amino acids by the dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Herrero, A., Flores, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Interaction of cytochrome bd with carbon monoxide at low and room temperatures: evidence that only a small fraction of heme b595 reacts with CO. Borisov, V.B., Sedelnikova, S.E., Poole, R.K., Konstantinov, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Positional isotopic equivalence of nitrogen in N2O produced by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri. Indirect evidence for a nitroxyl pathway. Garber, E.A., Hollocher, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Clustered genes required for synthesis and deposition of envelope glycolipids in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Fan, Q., Huang, G., Lechno-Yossef, S., Wolk, C.P., Kaneko, T., Tabata, S. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural relationships among Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic promoters. Better, M., Lewis, B., Corbin, D., Ditta, G., Helinski, D.R. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. The composite genome of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. Galibert, F., Finan, T.M., Long, S.R., Puhler, A., Abola, P., Ampe, F., Barloy-Hubler, F., Barnett, M.J., Becker, A., Boistard, P., Bothe, G., Boutry, M., Bowser, L., Buhrmester, J., Cadieu, E., Capela, D., Chain, P., Cowie, A., Davis, R.W., Dreano, S., Federspiel, N.A., Fisher, R.F., Gloux, S., Godrie, T., Goffeau, A., Golding, B., Gouzy, J., Gurjal, M., Hernandez-Lucas, I., Hong, A., Huizar, L., Hyman, R.W., Jones, T., Kahn, D., Kahn, M.L., Kalman, S., Keating, D.H., Kiss, E., Komp, C., Lelaure, V., Masuy, D., Palm, C., Peck, M.C., Pohl, T.M., Portetelle, D., Purnelle, B., Ramsperger, U., Surzycki, R., Thebault, P., Vandenbol, M., Vorholter, F.J., Weidner, S., Wells, D.H., Wong, K., Yeh, K.C., Batut, J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Phosphate depletion in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Wu, J., Sunda, W., Boyle, E.A., Karl, D.M. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Dinitrogen coordination chemistry: on the biomimetic borderlands. MacKay, B.A., Fryzuk, M.D. Chem. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Nitrogen Fixation Special Feature: Catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a single molybdenum center. Weare, W.W., Dai, X., Byrnes, M.J., Chin, J.M., Schrock, R.R., M??ller, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation of the Anabaena nir operon promoter requires both NtcA (CAP family) and NtcB (LysR family) transcription factors. Frías, J.E., Flores, E., Herrero, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydrazine is a product of dinitrogen reduction by the vanadium-nitrogenase from Azotobacter chroococcum. Dilworth, M.J., Eady, R.R. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Hydrazine is a product of azide reduction. Dilworth, M.J., Thorneley, R.N. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Iron-sulfur clusters in the molybdenum-iron protein component of nitrogenase. Electron paramagnetic resonance of the carbon monoxide inhibited state. Davis, L.C., Henzl, M.T., Burris, R.H., Orme-Johnson, W.H. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutamine and glutamate transport by Anabaena variabilis. Chapman, J.S., Meeks, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of nif expression in Methanococcus maripaludis: roles of the euryarchaeal repressor NrpR, 2-oxoglutarate, and two operators. Lie, T.J., Wood, G.E., Leigh, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Does dinitrogen hydrogenation follow different mechanisms for [(eta5-C5Me4H)2Zr]2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) and {[PhP(CH2SiMe2NSiMe2CH2)PPh]Zr}2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) complexes? A computational study. Bobadova-Parvanova, P., Wang, Q., Quinonero-Santiago, D., Morokuma, K., Musaev, D.G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Reactivity of amino acids in nitrosation reactions and its relation to the alkylating potential of their products. García-Santos, M.d.e.l. .P., González-Mancebo, S., Hernández-Benito, J., Calle, E., Casado, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. The Mechanistically Significant Coordination Chemistry of Dinitrogen at FeMo-co, the Catalytic Site of Nitrogenase. Dance, I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Collisions between nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 spin-labels. 1. Lipid-lipid interactions in model membranes. Davoust, J., Seigneuret, M., Hervé, P., Devaux, P.F. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Monitoring of intracellular ammonium in perfused rat salivary gland by nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Seo, Y., Murakami, M. Proc. Biol. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Crystallographic structure of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii. Georgiadis, M.M., Komiya, H., Chakrabarti, P., Woo, D., Kornuc, J.J., Rees, D.C. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Cyclopentadienyl substituent effects on reductive elimination reactions in group 4 metallocenes: kinetics, mechanism, and application to dinitrogen activation. Pool, J.A., Lobkovsky, E., Chirik, P.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Preparation and molecular and electronic structures of iron(0) dinitrogen and silane complexes and their application to catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilation. Bart, S.C., Lobkovsky, E., Chirik, P.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae: electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) studies on the substrate reduction site. Howes, B.D., Fisher, K., Lowe, D.J. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Benzonitrile extrusion from molybdenum(IV) ketimide complexes obtained via radical C-E (E = O, S, Se) bond formation: toward a new nitrogen atom transfer reaction. Mendiratta, A., Cummins, C.C., Kryatova, O.P., Rybak-Akimova, E.V., McDonough, J.E., Hoff, C.D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Enzymatic evidence for the key role of arginine in nitrogen translocation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Cruz, C., Egsgaard, H., Trujillo, C., Ambus, P., Requena, N., Martins-Loução, M.A., Jakobsen, I. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Stress-responsive Gln3 localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is separable from and can overwhelm nitrogen source regulation. Tate, J.J., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Phosphorylation of the yeast nitrate transporter Ynt1 is essential for delivery to the plasma membrane during nitrogen limitation. Navarro, F.J., Martín, Y., Siverio, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  30. Nitrogen-doped titania nanosheets towards visible light response. Liu, G., Wang, L., Sun, C., Chen, Z., Yan, X., Cheng, L., Cheng, H.M., Lu, G.Q. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2009) [Pubmed]
  31. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 ntcA gene required for growth on nitrate and heterocyst development. Wei, T.F., Ramasubramanian, T.S., Golden, J.W. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of expression of the argC and argD genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Floriano, B., Herrero, A., Flores, E. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Requirement of the regulatory protein NtcA for the expression of nitrogen assimilation and heterocyst development genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Frías, J.E., Flores, E., Herrero, A. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulatory response of Methanococcus maripaludis to alanine, an intermediate nitrogen source. Lie, T.J., Leigh, J.A. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of the nifJ gene coding for pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase in dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Schmitz, O., Kentemich, T., Zimmer, W., Hundeshagen, B., Bothe, H. Arch. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. A mutation in NLA, which encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, disrupts the adaptability of Arabidopsis to nitrogen limitation. Peng, M., Hannam, C., Gu, H., Bi, Y.M., Rothstein, S.J. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. The Streptomyces coelicolor GlnR regulon: identification of new GlnR targets and evidence for a central role of GlnR in nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. Tiffert, Y., Supra, P., Wurm, R., Wohlleben, W., Wagner, R., Reuther, J. Mol. Microbiol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  38. Reconstitution of light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase from purified bchl and BchN-BchB subunits. In vitro confirmation of nitrogenase-like features of a bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis enzyme. Fujita, Y., Bauer, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Characterization of microbial communities removing nitrogen oxides from flue gas: the BioDeNOx process. Kumaraswamy, R., van Dongen, U., Kuenen, J.G., Abma, W., van Loosdrecht, M.C., Muyzer, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Nitrogen-gas injection from a power reamer: a complication of closed intramedullary nailing of the femur. Technical note. Whitehill, R., Moskal, J.T., Scully, K.S., Noriega, L.K., Longnecker, D.E., Bedford, R.F. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1983) [Pubmed]
  41. A new tantalum dinitrogen complex and a parahydrogen-induced polarization study of its reaction with hydrogen. Bregel, D.C., Oldham, S.M., Lachicotte, R.J., Eisenberg, R. Inorganic chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Complete conversion of nitrate into dinitrogen gas in co-cultures of denitrifying bacteria. Van de Pas-Schoonen, K.T., Schalk-Otte, S., Haaijer, S., Schmid, M., Op den Camp, H., Strous, M., Gijs Kuenen, J., Jetten, M.S. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities