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Gene Review

VRN2  -  polycomb group protein VERNALIZATION 2

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on VRN2

  • VRN2 function therefore stably maintains FLC repression after a cold treatment, serving as a mechanism for the cellular memory of vernalization [1].
  • The VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2) gene mediates vernalization and encodes a nuclear-localized zinc finger protein with similarity to Polycomb group (PcG) proteins of plants and animals [1].
  • This association did not depend on vernalization or VRN2 function and was maintained during mitosis but was lost in meiotic chromosomes, suggesting that VRN1 may contribute to chromatin silencing that is not meiotically stable [2].
  • The vrn1 and vrn2 mutations did not affect the acclimation response as judged by expression of cold-induced transcripts and freezing tolerance assays. vrn1-1 affected the short-day vernalization response of Landsberg erecta and reduced the vernalization response of other late-flowering Arabidopsis mutants [3].
  • Reduction of the RNA level of VRN2 by RNA interference accelerated the flowering time of transgenic winter-wheat plants by more than a month [4].

Biological context of VRN2

  • We also showed that dominant Vrn-A(m)1 alleles were the result of loss-of-function mutations in regulatory regions recognized by a VRN-1 repressor, likely VRN-2 [5].

Physical interactions of VRN2

  • We demonstrate that the repression of FLC by vernalization requires homologues of other Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 proteins and VRN2 [6].

Regulatory relationships of VRN2

  • These results suggest that the dominant Vrn-1 allele or a gene regulated by VRN-1 down-regulates the VRN-2 repressor facilitating the transcription of the recessive alleles in unvernalized plants [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VRN2

  • High-density genetic mapping and RT-PCR suggest that Snf2P is not a candidate gene for the tightly linked vernalization gene Vrn2 [7].


  1. The VERNALIZATION 2 gene mediates the epigenetic regulation of vernalization in Arabidopsis. Gendall, A.R., Levy, Y.Y., Wilson, A., Dean, C. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC. Mylne, J.S., Barrett, L., Tessadori, F., Mesnage, S., Johnson, L., Bernatavichute, Y.V., Jacobsen, S.E., Fransz, P., Dean, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis mutants showing an altered response to vernalization. Chandler, J., Wilson, A., Dean, C. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. The wheat VRN2 gene is a flowering repressor down-regulated by vernalization. Yan, L., Loukoianov, A., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Ramakrishna, W., SanMiguel, P., Bennetzen, J.L., Echenique, V., Dubcovsky, J. Science (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of VRN-1 vernalization genes in normal and transgenic polyploid wheat. Loukoianov, A., Yan, L., Blechl, A., Sanchez, A., Dubcovsky, J. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The Arabidopsis thaliana vernalization response requires a polycomb-like protein complex that also includes VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3. Wood, C.C., Robertson, M., Tanner, G., Peacock, W.J., Dennis, E.S., Helliwell, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Cereal genes similar to Snf2 define a new subfamily that includes human and mouse genes. Yan, L., Echenique, V., Busso, C., SanMiguel, P., Ramakrishna, W., Bennetzen, J.L., Harrington, S., Dubcovsky, J. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
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