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Gene Review

ER  -  LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein...

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ER

  • Loss of the entire ERECTA family genes led to striking dwarfism, reduced lateral organ size and abnormal flower development, including defects in petal polar expansion, carpel elongation, and anther and ovule differentiation [1].
  • QRP1, the locus showing the strongest effect, was found to correspond to the ERECTA (ER) gene that encodes a receptor-like-kinase (RLK), which has been previously implicated in plant development, and resistance to the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum [2].
  • All four transgenic lines showed lower deposition of callose after Al treatment than the Landsberg erecta ecotype of Arabidopsis, confirming that the four genes function to ameliorate Al toxicity [3].
  • In no-choice experiments, where larvae were confined on one or the other ecotype, weight gain was more rapid on Landsberg erecta than on Columbia. Genetic mapping of this difference in insect susceptibility using recombinant inbred lines resulted in the discovery of the TASTY locus near 85 cM on chromosome 1 of Arabidopsis [4].
  • These results suggest that ERECTA function is required for reducing plant sensitivity to heat stress during adaxial-abaxial polarity formation in leaves [5].

High impact information on ER

  • Furthermore, we show that CLV1 expressed within the pedicel can partially replace the function of the ERECTA receptor kinase [6].
  • Transgenic plants expressing DeltaKinase displayed phenotypes, including compact inflorescence and short, blunt siliques, that are characteristic of loss-of-function erecta mutant plants [7].
  • Dominant-negative receptor uncovers redundancy in the Arabidopsis ERECTA Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase signaling pathway that regulates organ shape [7].
  • We analyzed the biological significance of these alternative transcripts in disease resistance by removing introns 2 and 3, either individually or in combination, from a functional RPS4-Ler (Landsberg erecta) transgene [8].
  • These findings suggest that functionally redundant RLK signaling pathways, including ERECTA, are required to fine-tune the proliferation and growth of cells in the same tissue type during Arabidopsis organogenesis [7].

Biological context of ER

  • A genetic screen was performed to find new mutants with an erecta (er) phenotype and to identify genes that may function with ER, a receptor-like kinase [9].
  • Both genetic and cellular analyses indicate that auxin and the ER pathway regulate cell division and cell expansion in a largely independent but overlapping manner during elaboration of inflorescence architecture [10].
  • Our findings place ERECTA-family RLKs as redundant receptors that link cell proliferation to organ growth and patterning [1].
  • Our previous study using a dominant-negative fragment of ERECTA revealed the presence of redundancy in the ERECTA-mediated signal transduction pathway [1].
  • The deduced ER protein contains a cytoplasmic protein kinase catalytic domain, a transmembrane region, and an extracellular domain consisting of leucine-rich repeats, which are thought to interact with other macromolecules [11].

Anatomical context of ER

  • Here we report that three ERECTA (ER)-family leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) together control stomatal patterning, with specific family members regulating the specification of stomatal stem cell fate and the differentiation of guard cells [12].
  • Thus, at the steady state, endogenous peroxisomal AtAPX resides at different levels in rough ER and peroxisomes [13].
  • Further analyses of peroxisomal and rough ER vesicle fractions revealed that AtAPX in both fractions was similarly associated with and located mostly on the cytosolic face of the membranes [13].
  • Most AtAPX in microsomes (200,000g, 1 h pellet) applied to gradients exhibited a Mg2+-induced shift from a distribution throughout gradients (approximately 18%-40% [w/w] Suc) to > or =42% (w/w) Suc regions of gradients, including pellets, indicative of localization in rough ER vesicles [13].
  • Previously we reported (R.T. Mullen, C.S. Lisenbee, J.A. Miernyk, R.N. Trelease [1999] Plant Cell 11: 2167-2185) that overexpressed ascorbate peroxidase (APX), a peroxisomal membrane protein, sorted indirectly to Bright Yellow-2 cell peroxisomes via a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; peroxisomal endoplasmic reticulum [pER]) [13].

Associations of ER with chemical compounds

  • Interaction of auxin and ERECTA in elaborating Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture revealed by the activation tagging of a new member of the YUCCA family putative flavin monooxygenases [10].
  • However, AtAPX was detected readily with immunoblots in both peroxisomal and ER fractions recovered from sucrose (Suc) density gradients [13].
  • Ethylene consistently suppressed the normal tendency for roots of Landsberg erecta to skew to the right as they grow against hard-agar surfaces and also generated righthanded petiole twisting [14].
  • Al tolerance in Landsberg erecta x Columbia is more complex genetically than physiologically, in that a number of genes underlie a single physiological mechanism involving root malate release [15].
  • The total enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferases or peroxidases in transgenic lines carrying either the parB or NtPox genes were significantly higher than in the Landsberg erecta ecotype of Arabidopsis, and these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels during Al stress [3].

Regulatory relationships of ER


Other interactions of ER

  • Analysis of agb1-1 er double mutants suggests that AGB1 may function in an ER developmental pathway regulating silique width but that it functions in parallel pathways affecting silique length as well as leaf and stem development [9].
  • Although erl1 and erl2 mutations conferred no detectable phenotype, they enhanced erecta defects in a unique manner [1].
  • Our findings suggest that the negative regulation of ER-family RLKs by TMM, which is an LRR receptor-like protein, is critical for proper stomatal differentiation [12].
  • A possible model of the AS1, AS2 and ER action in leaf polarity formation is discussed [17].
  • Analysis of pedicel vascular patterns revealed biasing of vasculature towards the abaxial side, consistent with a role for BP and ER in regulating a vascular-borne growth inhibitory signal [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ER


  1. Synergistic interaction of three ERECTA-family receptor-like kinases controls Arabidopsis organ growth and flower development by promoting cell proliferation. Shpak, E.D., Berthiaume, C.T., Hill, E.J., Torii, K.U. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. ERECTA receptor-like kinase and heterotrimeric G protein from Arabidopsis are required for resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Llorente, F., Alonso-Blanco, C., Sánchez-Rodriguez, C., Jorda, L., Molina, A. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Different mechanisms of four aluminum (Al)-resistant transgenes for Al toxicity in Arabidopsis. Ezaki, B., Katsuhara, M., Kawamura, M., Matsumoto, H. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The TASTY locus on chromosome 1 of Arabidopsis affects feeding of the insect herbivore Trichoplusia ni. Jander, G., Cui, J., Nhan, B., Pierce, N.E., Ausubel, F.M. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. ERECTA is required for protection against heat-stress in the AS1/ AS2 pathway to regulate adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity in Arabidopsis. Qi, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, L., Xu, Y., Huang, H. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. CLAVATA1 dominant-negative alleles reveal functional overlap between multiple receptor kinases that regulate meristem and organ development. Diévart, A., Dalal, M., Tax, F.E., Lacey, A.D., Huttly, A., Li, J., Clark, S.E. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Dominant-negative receptor uncovers redundancy in the Arabidopsis ERECTA Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase signaling pathway that regulates organ shape. Shpak, E.D., Lakeman, M.B., Torii, K.U. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. RPS4-mediated disease resistance requires the combined presence of RPS4 transcripts with full-length and truncated open reading frames. Zhang, X.C., Gassmann, W. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development. Lease, K.A., Wen, J., Li, J., Doke, J.T., Liscum, E., Walker, J.C. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction of auxin and ERECTA in elaborating Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture revealed by the activation tagging of a new member of the YUCCA family putative flavin monooxygenases. Woodward, C., Bemis, S.M., Hill, E.J., Sawa, S., Koshiba, T., Torii, K.U. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The Arabidopsis ERECTA gene encodes a putative receptor protein kinase with extracellular leucine-rich repeats. Torii, K.U., Mitsukawa, N., Oosumi, T., Matsuura, Y., Yokoyama, R., Whittier, R.F., Komeda, Y. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Stomatal patterning and differentiation by synergistic interactions of receptor kinases. Shpak, E.D., McAbee, J.M., Pillitteri, L.J., Torii, K.U. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase resides within a subdomain of rough endoplasmic reticulum in wild-type Arabidopsis cells. Lisenbee, C.S., Heinze, M., Trelease, R.N. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethylene modulates root-wave responses in Arabidopsis. Buer, C.S., Wasteneys, G.O., Masle, J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and characterization of aluminum tolerance loci in Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta x Columbia) by quantitative trait locus mapping. A physiologically simple but genetically complex trait. Hoekenga, O.A., Vision, T.J., Shaff, J.E., Monforte, A.J., Lee, G.P., Howell, S.H., Kochian, L.V. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification by large-scale screening of phytochrome-regulated genes in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis using a fluorescent differential display technique. Kuno, N., Muramatsu, T., Hamazato, F., Furuya, M. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity. Xu, L., Xu, Y., Dong, A., Sun, Y., Pi, L., Xu, Y., Huang, H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Pedicel development in Arabidopsis thaliana: contribution of vascular positioning and the role of the BREVIPEDICELLUS and ERECTA genes. Douglas, S.J., Riggs, C.D. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Development of an AFLP based linkage map of Ler, Col and Cvi Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and construction of a Ler/Cvi recombinant inbred line population. Alonso-Blanco, C., Peeters, A.J., Koornneef, M., Lister, C., Dean, C., van den Bosch, N., Pot, J., Kuiper, M.T. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. The Arabidopsis ERECTA gene is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and organ primordia. Yokoyama, R., Takahashi, T., Kato, A., Torii, K.U., Komeda, Y. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic regulation of gene expression during shoot development in Arabidopsis. DeCook, R., Lall, S., Nettleton, D., Howell, S.H. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Isolation and characterization of copia-type retrotransposons in Arabidopsis thaliana. Kuwahara, A., Kato, A., Komeda, Y. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
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