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Gene Review

LD  -  homeobox protein LUMINIDEPENDENS

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: T10P11.15, T10P11_15, luminidependens
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High impact information on LD


Biological context of LD

  • RNA and protein blot analyses, along with the analysis of transgenic plants containing a fusion between a genomic fragment of LD and the reporter gene uidA (GUS), indicate that LD is expressed primarily ipical proliferative regions of the shoot and root, including the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia [5].
  • The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression [5].
  • Overexpression of AGL28 caused precocious flowering via the upregulation of the expression of FCA and LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD), both floral promoters within the autonomous pathway [6].

Regulatory relationships of LD


Other interactions of LD

  • These data are consistent with the idea that at least one function of LD is to participate in the regulation of LFY [5].
  • These effects were not influenced markedly by the activities of the Arabidopsis LD or FLC genes [8].


  1. FPA, a gene involved in floral induction in Arabidopsis, encodes a protein containing RNA-recognition motifs. Schomburg, F.M., Patton, D.A., Meinke, D.W., Amasino, R.M. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering. Michaels, S.D., Amasino, R.M. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation of LUMINIDEPENDENS: a gene involved in the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis. Lee, I., Aukerman, M.J., Gore, S.L., Lohman, K.N., Michaels, S.D., Weaver, L.M., John, M.C., Feldmann, K.A., Amasino, R.M. Plant Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Two lily SEPALLATA-like genes cause different effects on floral formation and floral transition in Arabidopsis. Tzeng, T.Y., Hsiao, C.C., Chi, P.J., Yang, C.H. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression. Aukerman, M.J., Lee, I., Weigel, D., Amasino, R.M. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Overexpression of AGAMOUS-LIKE 28 (AGL28) promotes flowering by upregulating expression of floral promoters within the autonomous pathway. Yoo, S.K., Lee, J.S., Ahn, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Interaction of FLC and late-flowering mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sanda, S.L., Amasino, R.M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of a gene from Zea mays related to the Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS. van Nocke, S., Muszynski, M., Briggs, K., Amasino, R.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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