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Gene Review

VTC2  -  GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F10M23.190, F10M23_190, vitamin c defective 2
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Disease relevance of VTC2


High impact information on VTC2

  • The mutants lacking NPQ in addition to ascorbate were only slightly more affected than vtc2 [2].
  • To learn more about the importance of ascorbate in the acclimation of plants to high light (HL), vtc2, an ascorbate-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis, and the double mutants vtc2npq4 and vtc2npq1 were tested for growth in low light and HL and compared with the wild type [2].
  • The double mutant bleached sooner and had higher degrees of lipid peroxidation and photoinhibition than the vtc2 mutant [3].
  • PCD symptoms such as nuclear chromatin condensation, the presence of multivesicular bodies, and extensive degradation and disorganization of the grana stacks were observed in 8-week-old vtc2 leaves and in 10-week-old vtc1 leaves [4].
  • However, the vtc2 mutants produced greater numbers of longer LRs than wild-type or vtc1 plants at all levels of nitrate [4].

Associations of VTC2 with chemical compounds

  • In characterizing recombinant VTC2 from A. thaliana as a specific GDP-L-galactose/GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase, we conclude that enzymes catalyzing each of the ten steps of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway from glucose to ascorbate have been identified [5].
  • Normal growth was restored by supplementation with ascorbate or L-galactose, indicating that both enzymes are necessary for ascorbate generation. vtc2-1 leaves contain more mannose 6-P than wild-type [6].


  1. Ascorbic acid deficiency activates cell death and disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis. Pavet, V., Olmos, E., Kiddle, G., Mowla, S., Kumar, S., Antoniw, J., Alvarez, M.E., Foyer, C.H. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Ascorbate-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis grow in high light despite chronic photooxidative stress. Müller-Moulé, P., Golan, T., Niyogi, K.K. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Zeaxanthin deficiency enhances the high light sensitivity of an ascorbate-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. Müller-Moulé, P., Havaux, M., Niyogi, K.K. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Modulation of plant morphology, root architecture, and cell structure by low vitamin C in Arabidopsis thaliana. Olmos, E., Kiddle, G., Pellny, T., Kumar, S., Foyer, C.h. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Arabidopsis VTC2 encodes a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, the last unknown enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to ascorbic acid in plants. Linster, C.L., Gomez, T.A., Christensen, K.C., Adler, L.N., Young, B.D., Brenner, C., Clarke, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability. Dowdle, J., Ishikawa, T., Gatzek, S., Rolinski, S., Smirnoff, N. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
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