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Gene Review

GLU1  -  ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on GLU1

  • Several of the assays, including those for sucrose phosphate synthase, ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, glycerokinase, and shikimate dehydrogenase, provide large advantages over previous approaches [1].
  • Most of the known nitrate-regulated genes (including those encoding nitrate reductase, the nitrate transporter NRT1, and glutamate synthase) appeared in the 40 most strongly nitrate-induced genes/clones on at least one of the microarrays of the 5524 genes/clones investigated [2].
  • Both the mutant analysis and gene regulation studies suggest that GLU1 plays a major role in photorespiration and also plays a role in primary nitrogen assimilation in leaves, whereas the GLU2 gene may play a major role in primary nitrogen assimilation in roots [3].
  • Although these results suggest a major role for GLU1 in photorespiration, the sucrose induction of GLU1 mRNA in leaves also suggests a role in primary nitrogen assimilation [3].
  • However, ammonia assimilation is a two-step process and the second step, catalyzed by glutamate synthase, is exclusively located in plastids [4].

Biological context of GLU1

  • The 5' flanking element of GLU1 directed the expression of the uidA reporter gene in the palisade and spongy parenchyma of mesophyll, in the phloem cells of vascular tissue and in the roots of tobacco [5].
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of the complementary DNA for A. thaliana Fd-dependent glutamate synthase has been determined [6].
  • Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the complete cDNA sequence (5178 bp) has revealed that A. thaliana Fd-dependent glutamate synthase is synthesized as a 1648-amino-acid precursor protein (180090 Da) which consists of a 131-amino-acid transit peptide (14603 Da) and a 1517-amino-acid mature peptide (165487 Da) [6].
  • As glutamate synthase and Rieske Fe-S proteins are not affected in nfu2 mutants, these data indicate that different pathways are involved in Fe-S biogenesis in Arabidopsis chloroplasts [7].

Associations of GLU1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of GLU1

  • These distinct organ-specific expression patterns suggested a non-redundant physiological role for the NADH-GOGAT and Fd-GOGAT gene products [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLU1


  1. A Robot-based platform to measure multiple enzyme activities in Arabidopsis using a set of cycling assays: comparison of changes of enzyme activities and transcript levels during diurnal cycles and in prolonged darkness. Gibon, Y., Blaesing, O.E., Hannemann, J., Carillo, P., Höhne, M., Hendriks, J.H., Palacios, N., Cross, J., Selbig, J., Stitt, M. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Genomic analysis of a nutrient response in Arabidopsis reveals diverse expression patterns and novel metabolic and potential regulatory genes induced by nitrate. Wang, R., Guegler, K., LaBrie, S.T., Crawford, N.M. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis gls mutants and distinct Fd-GOGAT genes. Implications for photorespiration and primary nitrogen assimilation. Coschigano, K.T., Melo-Oliveira, R., Lim, J., Coruzzi, G.M. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Shuffling ammonia between mitochondria and plastids during photorespiration. Linka, M., Weber, A.P. Trends Plant Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase gene in mesophyll and vascular cells and functions of the enzyme in ammonium assimilation in Nicotiana tabacum (L.). Feraud, M., Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Ferrario-Méry, S., Pageau, K., Lelandais, M., Ziegler, C., Leboeuf, E., Jouglet, T., Viret, L., Spampinato, A., Paganelli, V., Hammouda, M.B., Suzuki, A. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and regulation of ferredoxin-dependent glutamase synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of cDNA expression in different tissues of wild-type and gltS mutant strains, and light induction. Suzuki, A., Rothstein, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Nfu2: a scaffold protein required for [4Fe-4S] and ferredoxin iron-sulphur cluster assembly in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Touraine, B., Boutin, J.P., Marion-Poll, A., Briat, J.F., Peltier, G., Lobréaux, S. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of nitrate reductase transcript levels by glutamine accumulating in the leaves of a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase-deficient gluS mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, and by glutamine provided via the roots. Dzuibany, C., Haupt, S., Fock, H., Biehler, K., Migge, A., Becker, T.W. Planta (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Arabidopsis glt1-T mutant defines a role for NADH-GOGAT in the non-photorespiratory ammonium assimilatory pathway. Lancien, M., Martin, M., Hsieh, M.H., Leustek, T., Goodman, H., Coruzzi, G.M. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase play distinct roles in the sink-source nitrogen cycle in tobacco. Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Reisdorf-Cren, M., Pageau, K., Lelandais, M., Grandjean, O., Kronenberger, J., Valadier, M.H., Feraud, M., Jouglet, T., Suzuki, A. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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