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Gene Review

PI  -  Floral homeotic protein PISTILLATA

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of PI

  • Flowers of plants constitutively expressing both PISTILLATA and APETALA3 under the control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus consist of two outer whorls of petals and inner whorls of stamens [1].

High impact information on PI


Biological context of PI


Associations of PI with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PI

  • Proper development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis flowers requires the activities of APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), whose transcripts can be detected in the petal and stamen primordia [12].
  • In addition to homeotic changes, mutations at the APETALA2, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA loci may lead to reduced numbers of organs, or even their absence, in specific whorls [13].
  • Double mutant combinations of clavata1 with agamous, apetala2, apetala3 and pistillata indicate that CLAVATA1 controls the underlying floral meristem structure upon which these homeotic genes act [14].
  • In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products [15].
  • Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA [16].


  1. The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 and PISTILLATA are sufficient to provide the B class organ identity function. Krizek, B.A., Meyerowitz, E.M. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. A homolog of NO APICAL MERISTEM is an immediate target of the floral homeotic genes APETALA3/PISTILLATA. Sablowski, R.W., Meyerowitz, E.M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis homeotic gene APETALA3 ectopic expression: transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation determine floral organ identity. Jack, T., Fox, G.L., Meyerowitz, E.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. BIGPETALp, a bHLH transcription factor is involved in the control of Arabidopsis petal size. Szécsi, J., Joly, C., Bordji, K., Varaud, E., Cock, J.M., Dumas, C., Bendahmane, M. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development. Levin, J.Z., Meyerowitz, E.M. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Dimerization specificity of Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS. Riechmann, J.L., Krizek, B.A., Meyerowitz, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis. Sundström, J.F., Nakayama, N., Glimelius, K., Irish, V.F. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA is regulated by discrete cis-elements responsive to induction and maintenance signals. Honma, T., Goto, K. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular population genetics of floral homeotic loci. Departures from the equilibrium-neutral model at the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Purugganan, M.D., Suddith, J.I. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Chaudhury, A.M., Ming, L., Miller, C., Craig, S., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA sequence variation in BpMADS2 gene in two populations of Betula pendula. Järvinen, P., Lemmetyinen, J., Savolainen, O., Sopanen, T. Mol. Ecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1. Ng, M., Yanofsky, M.F. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic interactions among floral homeotic genes of Arabidopsis. Bowman, J.L., Smyth, D.R., Meyerowitz, E.M. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. CLAVATA1, a regulator of meristem and flower development in Arabidopsis. Clark, S.E., Running, M.P., Meyerowitz, E.M. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. Bowman, J.L., Sakai, H., Jack, T., Weigel, D., Mayer, U., Meyerowitz, E.M. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem. Samach, A., Klenz, J.E., Kohalmi, S.E., Risseeuw, E., Haughn, G.W., Crosby, W.L. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
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