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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review


Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of UFO


High impact information on UFO

  • The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development [2].
  • Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation [2].
  • Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea [3].
  • UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity [4].
  • In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth [4].

Biological context of UFO

  • The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis [5].
  • We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles [4].
  • The expression of the B function homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) and its regulator UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) were delayed and reduced in AP1::SUP flowers [6].

Other interactions of UFO

  • These results support the idea that UFO and ASK1 together positively regulate AP3 and PI expression [5].
  • AP3 and PI expression are positively regulated by the LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) genes [5].
  • Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes [7].
  • However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers [6].
  • In the development of second-whorl organs, RBE acts in the same pathway and downstream of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UFO

  • Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia [9].


  1. A LEAFY co-regulator encoded by UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS. Lee, I., Wolfe, D.S., Nilsson, O., Weigel, D. Curr. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development. Wang, X., Feng, S., Nakayama, N., Crosby, W.L., Irish, V., Deng, X.W., Wei, N. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves. Taylor, S., Hofer, J., Murfet, I. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development. Levin, J.Z., Meyerowitz, E.M. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis. Zhao, D., Yu, Q., Chen, M., Ma, H. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens. Yun, J.Y., Weigel, D., Lee, I. Plant Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes. Ni, W., Xie, D., Hobbie, L., Feng, B., Zhao, D., Akkara, J., Ma, H. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. RABBIT EARS is a second-whorl repressor of AGAMOUS that maintains spatial boundaries in Arabidopsis flowers. Krizek, B.A., Lewis, M.W., Fletcher, J.C. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem. Samach, A., Klenz, J.E., Kohalmi, S.E., Risseeuw, E., Haughn, G.W., Crosby, W.L. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
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