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Gene Review

KIP3  -  tubulin-dependent ATPase KIP3

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Kinesin-like protein KIP3, YGL216W
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Psychiatry related information on KIP3

  • Fluorescent speckle analysis established that, in vivo, Kip3p moved toward and accumulated on the plus ends of growing microtubules, suggesting that motor activity brings Kip3p to its site of action [1].

High impact information on KIP3

  • The checkpoint's ability to prevent nuclear division is abolished by combined deficiency of microtubule-destabilizing motor Kip3 and Mad2 functions [2].
  • The ATPase activity of Kip3p was activated by both microtubules and unpolymerized tubulin [1].
  • The budding yeast protein Kip3p is a member of the conserved kinesin-8 family of microtubule motors, which are required for microtubule-cortical interactions, normal spindle assembly and kinetochore dynamics [1].
  • Kip3p, a kinesin-8,-13/KinI kinesin, synchronizes poleward kinetochore movement during anaphase A [3].
  • We further show that the activity of Stu2 is opposed by the activity of the kinesin-related protein Kip3 [4].

Biological context of KIP3

  • Mutations in KIP3 and in the dynein heavy chain gene defined two distinct phases of nuclear migration: a KIP3-dependent movement of the nucleus toward the incipient bud site and a dynein-dependent translocation of the nucleus through the bud neck during anaphase [5].
  • Here we show that KIP3, the sixth and final kinesin-related gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for migration of the nucleus to the bud site in preparation for mitosis [5].
  • This phenotype is similar to that previously observed in cells lacking the kinesin Kip3p and, in fact, BNI1 and KIP3 were found to be in the same genetic pathway [6].
  • Localization studies found Kip2p exclusively on cytoplasmic microtubules throughout the cell cycle, whereas GFP-Kip3p localized to both spindle and cytoplasmic microtubules [7].

Anatomical context of KIP3

  • Epitope-tagged Kip3p localizes to astral and central spindle microtubules and is also present throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus [5].
  • In dyn1Delta cells that had completed positioning, elimination of Kip3p function caused spindles to mislocalize to distal positions in mother cell bodies [8].

Other interactions of KIP3

  • Simultaneous loss of KIP3 and kinesin-related KAR3 function, or of KIP3 and dynein function, is lethal but does not block any additional detectable movement [5].
  • Likewise, induced expression of KIP2 caused spindles to mislocalize in cells deficient for dynein and Kip3p [8].
  • Furthermore, we propose that Kip3p functions, in part, by depolymerizing microtubules and is required for the Kar9p-dependent orientation of the cytoplasmic microtubules [7].
  • Individual living cell analysis revealed that the preanaphase spindle was mispositioned and misaligned in latrunculin-treated cells and that astral microtubules were misoriented, confirming a role for filamentous actin in the early, Kip3p-dependent phase of spindle positioning [9].


  1. Plus end-specific depolymerase activity of Kip3, a kinesin-8 protein, explains its role in positioning the yeast mitotic spindle. Gupta, M.L., Carvalho, P., Roof, D.M., Pellman, D. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. DNA replication checkpoint prevents precocious chromosome segregation by regulating spindle behavior. Krishnan, V., Nirantar, S., Crasta, K., Cheng, A.Y., Surana, U. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of kinesin motor function at budding yeast kinetochores. Tytell, J.D., Sorger, P.K. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Stu2 promotes mitotic spindle elongation in anaphase. Severin, F., Habermann, B., Huffaker, T., Hyman, T. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Kinesin-related KIP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for a distinct step in nuclear migration. DeZwaan, T.M., Ellingson, E., Pellman, D., Roof, D.M. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of mitotic spindle position by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin Bni1p. Lee, L., Klee, S.K., Evangelista, M., Boone, C., Pellman, D. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The kinesin-related proteins, Kip2p and Kip3p, function differently in nuclear migration in yeast. Miller, R.K., Heller, K.K., Frisèn, L., Wallack, D.L., Loayza, D., Gammie, A.E., Rose, M.D. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Mitotic spindle positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by antagonistically acting microtubule motor proteins. Cottingham, F.R., Hoyt, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Dynein-dependent movements of the mitotic spindle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Do not require filamentous actin. Heil-Chapdelaine, R.A., Tran, N.K., Cooper, J.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
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