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Gene Review

ATG12  -  autophagy related 12

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: APG12, APG12-like, APG12L, Autophagy-related protein 12, FBR93, ...
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High impact information on ATG12


Biological context of ATG12

  • The ubiquitin-like conjugation reactions, ATG8/microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/MAP1LC3 (LC3) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and ATG12 to ATG5, are biochemical hallmarks for autophagy, a cellular process that degrades bulk cellular proteins and organelles [6].
  • Atg12, a post-translational modifier, is activated and conjugated to Atg5 by a ubiquitin-like conjugation system, though it has no obvious sequence homology to ubiquitin [5].

Anatomical context of ATG12

  • Furthermore, a potent stimulating activity for ATG12-ATG5 conjugation was detected in mammalian cell extracts, and was surprisingly identified as ribosomes [6].

Associations of ATG12 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ATG12

  • Previously, in vitro reconstitution of LC3-PE conjugation, but not the upstream ATG12-ATG5 conjugation, was reported [6].
  • We further show that two hydrophobic residues within the ubiquitin-fold region are important for autophagy: mutation at Y149 affects conjugate formation catalyzed by Atg10, an E2-like enzyme, while mutation at F154 has no effect on Atg12-Atg5 conjugate formation but its hydrophobic nature is essential for autophagy [5].


  1. ER stress (PERK/eIF2alpha phosphorylation) mediates the polyglutamine-induced LC3 conversion, an essential step for autophagy formation. Kouroku, Y., Fujita, E., Tanida, I., Ueno, T., Isoai, A., Kumagai, H., Ogawa, S., Kaufman, R.J., Kominami, E., Momoi, T. Cell Death Differ. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy. Mizushima, N., Sugita, H., Yoshimori, T., Ohsumi, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of the Apg12 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy. Mizushima, N., Yoshimori, T., Ohsumi, Y. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Mammalian Apg12p, but not the Apg12p.Apg5p conjugate, facilitates LC3 processing. Tanida, I., Nishitani, T., Nemoto, T., Ueno, T., Kominami, E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure-Function Relationship of Atg12, a Ubiquitin-like Modifier Essential for Autophagy. Hanada, T., Ohsumi, Y. Autophagy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Stimulation of ATG12-ATG5 Conjugation by Ribonucleic Acid. Shao, Y., Gao, Z., Feldman, T., Jiang, X. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. The Crystal Structure of Plant ATG12 and its Biological Implication in Autophagy. Suzuki, N.N., Yoshimoto, K., Fujioka, Y., Ohsumi, Y., Inagaki, F. Autophagy. (2005) [Pubmed]
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