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Gene Review

CBX1  -  chromobox homolog 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CBX, Chromobox protein homolog 1, HP1 beta, HP1-BETA, HP1Hs-beta, ...
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Disease relevance of CBX1

  • In this study, we demonstrate that HP1Hsalpha, but not HP1Hsbeta or HP1Hsgamma, is down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in highly invasive/metastatic breast cancer cell lines [1].
  • In this study, we reported on a search for potential target glycoproteins for annexin V in a rat hepatoma cell line, M31 [2].
  • DISCUSSION: CBX lowers IOP in patients with ocular hypertension [3].
  • Cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside used as a Paradigm Modifier to Increase Production of Tau Aggregates in a Cellular Model of Tauopathy [4].
  • A subset of genes that distinguished CBX samples from FNAB samples was evaluated in a larger group of needle biopsy samples and in a published genomic database derived from 78 sporadic breast carcinomas with known clinical outcome [5].

Psychiatry related information on CBX1

  • For example, to assess clinical decision making, students rated the CBX best, while they rated multiple-choice examinations best to assess knowledge [6].
  • A computerized examination, including traditional multiple-choice questions and interactive, patient-physician simulations (CBX), was used to assess the clinical problem-solving skills of first-year residents [7].

High impact information on CBX1


Chemical compound and disease context of CBX1


Biological context of CBX1


Anatomical context of CBX1

  • In chorion, E significantly inhibited PGDH activity, and this effect was reversed by addition of CBX [13].
  • Measurement of LDH release revealed that the glutamate insult was detrimental to the co-cultures when gap junctions were blocked with CBX and AGA [14].
  • The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml) [16].
  • Antagonistic Fas mAb M3 and Fas-IgG1 fusion protein significantly inhibited NK cytotoxicity towards Fas-expressing Jurkat cells, while non-antagonistic Fas mAb M31 and irrelevant CD14-IgG1 fusion protein had no effect [17].
  • Genes that were expressed differently in CBX samples, compared with FNAB samples, were recognized as being predominantly from the endothelium, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts or smooth muscle, and histiocytes [5].

Associations of CBX1 with chemical compounds

  • F and DEX significantly inhibited PGDH, and this effect was unaltered by coadministration of CBX [13].
  • Co-cultures were treated with the blocking agents carbenoxolone (CBX; 25 microM), 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA; 10 microM), vehicle or the inactive blocking analogue glycyrrhizic acid (GZA; 25 microM) [14].
  • Solution Structure and Functional Characterization of Jingzhaotoxin-XI: A Novel Gating Modifier of both Potassium and Sodium Channels(,) [18].
  • They were randomised to two groups: patients treated with celecoxib (CBX) (200 mg/24 h) and patients treated with aceclofenac (ACF) (100 mg/12 h) [19].
  • The CBX-treated healthy volunteers who demonstrated the largest change in urinary cortisol metabolites, indicative of 11beta-HSD1 inhibition, had the greatest fall in IOP [3].

Other interactions of CBX1

  • We demonstrate that CBS is modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 protein (SUMO-I) under both in vitro and in vivo conditions [20].
  • To investigate potential interplay between the SUMO1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier-1) and ubiquitin pathways of post-translational protein modification, we examined aspects of their localization and conjugation status during proteasome inhibition [21].
  • Modification of Daxx by small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 [22].
  • We found that, similar to its human counterpart, Xenopus Hsf2 is sumoylated at lysine 82 and that, as it does in human Hsf2, the modification event of the small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 functions to increase the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity of this transcription factor in Xenopus [23].
  • CONCLUSION: Modifier loci in the genetic background are important factors in inter- and intrafamilial variability in the phenotypic expression of PKD1 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CBX1

  • Two dominant autoepitopes in p25beta were determined by Western blotting using p25beta recombinant fragments [15].
  • Output of cortisol increased to 559+/-22 nM on the fetal side (P<0.05) with concurrent perfusion of carbenoxolone (CBX; 1 microM), a non-specific 11beta-HSD inhibitor [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both FNAB and CBX yield a similar quality and quantity of total RNA and are suitable for cDNA microarray analyses in approximately 70-75% of single-pass samples [5].
  • Using image data on the M31 Galaxy, it is shown that several artefacts can be detected and recognized based on their temporal pixel luminosity profiles and independent component images [26].
  • A high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient programming method was developed to determine the amount of carbadox (CBX), olaquindox (OLQ), furazolidone (FZ), nitrofurazone (NF), and nitrovin (NTV) in feed simultaneously [27].


  1. Down-regulation of HP1Hsalpha expression is associated with the metastatic phenotype in breast cancer. Kirschmann, D.A., Lininger, R.A., Gardner, L.M., Seftor, E.A., Odero, V.A., Ainsztein, A.M., Earnshaw, W.C., Wallrath, L.L., Hendrix, M.J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Bisecting GlcNAc mediates the binding of annexin V to Hsp47. Gao, C.X., Miyoshi, E., Uozumi, N., Takamiya, R., Wang, X., Noda, K., Gu, J., Honke, K., Wada, Y., Taniguchi, N. Glycobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lowers intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension. Rauz, S., Cheung, C.M., Wood, P.J., Coca-Prados, M., Walker, E.A., Murray, P.I., Stewart, P.M. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside used as a Paradigm Modifier to Increase Production of Tau Aggregates in a Cellular Model of Tauopathy. Ko, L.W., Kulathingal, J.G., Yen, S.H. Neurochem. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Total RNA yield and microarray gene expression profiles from fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy samples of breast carcinoma. Symmans, W.F., Ayers, M., Clark, E.A., Stec, J., Hess, K.R., Sneige, N., Buchholz, T.A., Krishnamurthy, S., Ibrahim, N.K., Buzdar, A.U., Theriault, R.L., Rosales, M.F., Thomas, E.S., Gwyn, K.M., Green, M.C., Syed, A.R., Hortobagyi, G.N., Pusztai, L. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparative study of measures to evaluate medical students' performance. Edelstein, R.A., Reid, H.M., Usatine, R., Wilkes, M.S. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Non-cognitive correlates of performance on conventional and interactive components of a computerized examination. Orr, N.A. Proceedings of the ... Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education. Conference on Research in Medical Education. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. MOD-1 is a serotonin-gated chloride channel that modulates locomotory behaviour in C. elegans. Ranganathan, R., Cannon, S.C., Horvitz, H.R. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. SNIP1 Is a Candidate Modifier of the Transcriptional Activity of c-Myc on E Box-Dependent Target Genes. Fujii, M., Lyakh, L.A., Bracken, C.P., Fukuoka, J., Hayakawa, M., Tsukiyama, T., Soll, S.J., Harris, M., Rocha, S., Roche, K.C., Tominaga, S., Jen, J., Perkins, N.D., Lechleider, R.J., Roberts, A.B. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure-function analysis of SUV39H1 reveals a dominant role in heterochromatin organization, chromosome segregation, and mitotic progression. Melcher, M., Schmid, M., Aagaard, L., Selenko, P., Laible, G., Jenuwein, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Human heterochromatin proteins form large domains containing KRAB-ZNF genes. Vogel, M.J., Guelen, L., de Wit, E., Hupkes, D.P., Lod??n, M., Talhout, W., Feenstra, M., Abbas, B., Classen, A.K., van Steensel, B. Genome Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Heterochromatin protein HP1Hsbeta (p25beta) and its localization with centromeres in mitosis. Furuta, K., Chan, E.K., Kiyosawa, K., Reimer, G., Luderschmidt, C., Tan, E.M. Chromosoma (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Local modulation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of glucocorticoid effects on the activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in human chorion and placental trophoblast cells. Patel, F.A., Sun, K., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Blocked gap junctional coupling increases glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. Ozog, M.A., Siushansian, R., Naus, C.C. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunological characterization of heterochromatin protein p25beta autoantibodies and relationship with centromere autoantibodies and pulmonary fibrosis in systemic scleroderma. Furuta, K., Hildebrandt, B., Matsuoka, S., Kiyosawa, K., Reimer, G., Luderschmidt, C., Chan, E.K., Tan, E.M. J. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. Mulders, P., Tso, C.L., Gitlitz, B., Kaboo, R., Hinkel, A., Frand, S., Kiertscher, S., Roth, M.D., deKernion, J., Figlin, R., Belldegrun, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of Fas and Fas-ligand expression in NK cells by cytokines and the involvement of Fas-ligand in NK/LAK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Medvedev, A.E., Johnsen, A.C., Haux, J., Steinkjer, B., Egeberg, K., Lynch, D.H., Sundan, A., Espevik, T. Cytokine (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Solution Structure and Functional Characterization of Jingzhaotoxin-XI: A Novel Gating Modifier of both Potassium and Sodium Channels(,). Liao, Z., Yuan, C., Deng, M., Li, J., Chen, J., Yang, Y., Hu, W., Liang, S. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Long term NSAID treatment inhibits COX-2 synthesis in the knee synovial membrane of patients with osteoarthritis: differential proinflammatory cytokine profile between celecoxib and aceclofenac. Alvarez-Soria, M.A., Largo, R., Santillana, J., Sánchez-Pernaute, O., Calvo, E., Hernández, M., Egido, J., Herrero-Beaumont, G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Human Cystathionine beta-Synthase Is a Target for Sumoylation. Kabil, O., Zhou, Y., Banerjee, R. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of the SUMO1 and ubiquitin conjugation pathways during the inhibition of proteasome activity with evidence of SUMO1 recycling. Bailey, D., O'Hare, P. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Modification of Daxx by small ubiquitin-related modifier-1. Jang, M.S., Ryu, S.W., Kim, E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of Xenopus heat shock transcription factor-2: conserved role of sumoylation in regulating deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor-2 proteins. Hilgarth, R.S., Murphy, L.A., O'Connor, C.M., Clark, J.A., Park-Sarge, O.K., Sarge, K.D. Cell Stress Chaperones (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Modifier genes play a significant role in the phenotypic expression of PKD1. Fain, P.R., McFann, K.K., Taylor, M.R., Tison, M., Johnson, A.M., Reed, B., Schrier, R.W. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Interconversion of cortisol and cortisone by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and 2 in the perfused human placenta. Sun, K., Adamson, S.L., Yang, K., Challis, J.R. Placenta (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Independent component analysis for artefact separation in astrophysical images. Funaro, M., Oja, E., Valpola, H. Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox, olaquindox, furazolidone, nitrofurazone, and nitrovin in feed. Lin, S.Y., Jeng, S.L. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
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