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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Autophagy


Psychiatry related information on Autophagy


High impact information on Autophagy

  • Here we show that plant BECLIN 1, an ortholog of the yeast and mammalian autophagy gene ATG6/VPS30/beclin 1, functions to restrict HR PCD to infection sites [7].
  • Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins inhibit Beclin 1-dependent autophagy [8].
  • The anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, interacts with the evolutionarily conserved autophagy protein, Beclin 1 [8].
  • In this issue of Cell, new evidence indicates that autophagy is used to for survival when intracellular nutrients are limited by growth factor deprivation (Lum et al., 2005) [9].
  • Sequestration of mTOR impairs its kinase activity and induces autophagy, a key clearance pathway for mutant huntingtin fragments [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Autophagy


Biological context of Autophagy


Anatomical context of Autophagy


Associations of Autophagy with chemical compounds


Gene context of Autophagy

  • Apg8/Aut7 is an essential factor for autophagy in yeast [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The progressive disappearance of acinar cells in Spink3(-/-) mice was due to autophagic cell death and impaired regeneration [26].
  • Cvt9 oligomers peripherally associate with a novel, perivacuolar membrane compartment and interact with Apg1, a Ser/Thr kinase essential for both the Cvt pathway and autophagy [27].
  • Here, we characterize a requirement for Vps34 in constitutive autophagy by the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway [28].
  • Apg9p/Cvt7p is the first characterized integral membrane protein required for Cvt and autophagy transport [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Autophagy


  1. Runx1 prevents wasting, myofibrillar disorganization, and autophagy of skeletal muscle. Wang, X., Blagden, C., Fan, J., Nowak, S.J., Taniuchi, I., Littman, D.R., Burden, S.J. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Promotion of tumorigenesis by heterozygous disruption of the beclin 1 autophagy gene. Qu, X., Yu, J., Bhagat, G., Furuya, N., Hibshoosh, H., Troxel, A., Rosen, J., Eskelinen, E.L., Mizushima, N., Ohsumi, Y., Cattoretti, G., Levine, B. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of starvation- and virus-induced autophagy by the eIF2alpha kinase signaling pathway. Tallóczy, Z., Jiang, W., Virgin, H.W., Leib, D.A., Scheuner, D., Kaufman, R.J., Eskelinen, E.L., Levine, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Rapamycin alleviates toxicity of different aggregate-prone proteins. Berger, Z., Ravikumar, B., Menzies, F.M., Oroz, L.G., Underwood, B.R., Pangalos, M.N., Schmitt, I., Wullner, U., Evert, B.O., O'Kane, C.J., Rubinsztein, D.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Pivotal role of the cell death factor BNIP3 in ceramide-induced autophagic cell death in malignant glioma cells. Daido, S., Kanzawa, T., Yamamoto, A., Takeuchi, H., Kondo, Y., Kondo, S. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. X-linked vacuolar myopathies: two separate loci and refined genetic mapping. Auranen, M., Villanova, M., Muntoni, F., Fardeau, M., Scherer, S.W., Kalino, H., Minassian, B.A. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Autophagy regulates programmed cell death during the plant innate immune response. Liu, Y., Schiff, M., Czymmek, K., Tallóczy, Z., Levine, B., Dinesh-Kumar, S.P. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins inhibit Beclin 1-dependent autophagy. Pattingre, S., Tassa, A., Qu, X., Garuti, R., Liang, X.H., Mizushima, N., Packer, M., Schneider, M.D., Levine, B. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Eating oneself and uninvited guests: autophagy-related pathways in cellular defense. Levine, B. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of mTOR induces autophagy and reduces toxicity of polyglutamine expansions in fly and mouse models of Huntington disease. Ravikumar, B., Vacher, C., Berger, Z., Davies, J.E., Luo, S., Oroz, L.G., Scaravilli, F., Easton, D.F., Duden, R., O'Kane, C.J., Rubinsztein, D.C. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of autophagy in temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity for malignant glioma cells. Kanzawa, T., Germano, I.M., Komata, T., Ito, H., Kondo, Y., Kondo, S. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of autophagic cell death in malignant glioma cells by arsenic trioxide. Kanzawa, T., Kondo, Y., Ito, H., Kondo, S., Germano, I. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Dopamine induces autophagic cell death and alpha-synuclein increase in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Gómez-Santos, C., Ferrer, I., Santidrián, A.F., Barrachina, M., Gil, J., Ambrosio, S. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Nano neodymium oxide induces massive vacuolization and autophagic cell death in non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells. Chen, Y., Yang, L., Feng, C., Wen, L.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The first molecular evidence that autophagy relates rimmed vacuole formation in chloroquine myopathy. Suzuki, T., Nakagawa, M., Yoshikawa, A., Sasagawa, N., Yoshimori, T., Ohsumi, Y., Nishino, I., Ishiura, S., Nonaka, I. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in a non-apoptotic programmed cell death dependent on autophagy genes. Shimizu, S., Kanaseki, T., Mizushima, N., Mizuta, T., Arakawa-Kobayashi, S., Thompson, C.B., Tsujimoto, Y. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. p62/SQSTM1 forms protein aggregates degraded by autophagy and has a protective effect on huntingtin-induced cell death. Bjørkøy, G., Lamark, T., Brech, A., Outzen, H., Perander, M., Overvatn, A., Stenmark, H., Johansen, T. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Aut2p and Aut7p, two novel microtubule-associated proteins are essential for delivery of autophagic vesicles to the vacuole. Lang, T., Schaeffeler, E., Bernreuther, D., Bredschneider, M., Wolf, D.H., Thumm, M. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Dissection of autophagosome biogenesis into distinct nucleation and expansion steps. Abeliovich, H., Dunn, W.A., Kim, J., Klionsky, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Pharmacologic perturbation of rat liver lysosomes: effects on release of lysosomal enzymes and of lipids into bile. Sewell, R.B., Grinpukel, S.A., Zinsmeister, A.R., LaRusso, N.F. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of autophagy in higher plant cells subjected to carbon deprivation: control by the supply of mitochondria with respiratory substrates. Aubert, S., Gout, E., Bligny, R., Marty-Mazars, D., Barrieu, F., Alabouvette, J., Marty, F., Douce, R. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing. Kabeya, Y., Mizushima, N., Ueno, T., Yamamoto, A., Kirisako, T., Noda, T., Kominami, E., Ohsumi, Y., Yoshimori, T. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The differential degradation of two cytosolic proteins as a tool to monitor autophagy in hepatocytes by immunocytochemistry. Rabouille, C., Strous, G.J., Crapo, J.D., Geuze, H.J., Slot, J.W. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Lithium induces autophagy by inhibiting inositol monophosphatase. Sarkar, S., Floto, R.A., Berger, Z., Imarisio, S., Cordenier, A., Pasco, M., Cook, L.J., Rubinsztein, D.C. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation. Ichimura, Y., Kirisako, T., Takao, T., Satomi, Y., Shimonishi, Y., Ishihara, N., Mizushima, N., Tanida, I., Kominami, E., Ohsumi, M., Noda, T., Ohsumi, Y. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Autophagic cell death of pancreatic acinar cells in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 3-deficient mice. Ohmuraya, M., Hirota, M., Araki, M., Mizushima, N., Matsui, M., Mizumoto, T., Haruna, K., Kume, S., Takeya, M., Ogawa, M., Araki, K., Yamamura, K. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Cvt9/Gsa9 functions in sequestering selective cytosolic cargo destined for the vacuole. Kim, J., Kamada, Y., Stromhaug, P.E., Guan, J., Hefner-Gravink, A., Baba, M., Scott, S.V., Ohsumi, Y., Dunn, W.A., Klionsky, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Novel PtdIns(3)P-binding protein Etf1 functions as an effector of the Vps34 PtdIns 3-kinase in autophagy. Wurmser, A.E., Emr, S.D. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Apg9p/Cvt7p is an integral membrane protein required for transport vesicle formation in the Cvt and autophagy pathways. Noda, T., Kim, J., Huang, W.P., Baba, M., Tokunaga, C., Ohsumi, Y., Klionsky, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular dissection of autophagy: two ubiquitin-like systems. Ohsumi, Y. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Nutrient deprivation of cultured rat hepatocytes increases the desferrioxamine-available iron pool and augments the sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Ollinger, K., Roberg, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Arsenic trioxide induces autophagic cell death in malignant glioma cells by upregulation of mitochondrial cell death protein BNIP3. Kanzawa, T., Zhang, L., Xiao, L., Germano, I.M., Kondo, Y., Kondo, S. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Hydrogenosome autophagy: an ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Benchimol, M. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Cellular autophagy in proximal tubules of early diabetic rats following insulin treatment and islet transplantation. Han, K., Lehringer-Polzin, M., Zhou, H., Pfeifer, U. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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