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Gene Review

TSIX  -  TSIX transcript, XIST antisense RNA

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: LINC00013, NCRNA00013, XIST-AS, XIST-AS1, XISTAS
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High impact information on TSIX

  • Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre [1].
  • Before the onset of X inactivation, Tsix is expressed from both X chromosomes [1].
  • Yy1 and Ctcf associate through specific protein-protein interactions and together transactivate Tsix [2].
  • Following choice, the asymmetry of Xite and Tsix expression drives divergent chromosome fates, but how this pattern becomes established is currently unknown [2].
  • Now, using RNA FISH for cellular localization of transcripts in human fetal cells, we show that human TSIX antisense transcripts are unable to repress XIST [3].

Biological context of TSIX

  • These differences could explain the fact that X inactivation is not imprinted in human placenta, and they raise questions about the role of TSIX in random X inactivation [4].
  • Human TSIX produces a >30-kb transcript that is expressed only in cells of fetal origin; it is expressed from human XIC transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells and from human embryoid-body-derived cells, but not from human adult somatic cells [4].
  • In fact, TSIX is transcribed only from the inactive X chromosome and is coexpressed with XIST [3].
  • Also, TSIX is not maternally imprinted in placental tissues, and its transcription persists in placental and fetal tissues, throughout embryogenesis [3].
  • In XCI, TSIX serves as an antisense regulator of XIST, the silencer element for XCI which itself makes a non-coding transcript [5].

Anatomical context of TSIX

  • In the present study we show that both Xist RNA and Tsix RNA, an antisense RNA that controls Xist function in the soma, are expressed in the testis in a germ-cell-dependent manner [6].


  1. Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre. Lee, J.T., Davidow, L.S., Warshawsky, D. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a ctcf cofactor, yy1, for the x chromosome binary switch. Donohoe, M.E., Zhang, L.F., Xu, N., Shi, Y., Lee, J.T. Mol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Species differences in TSIX/Tsix reveal the roles of these genes in X-chromosome inactivation. Migeon, B.R., Lee, C.H., Chowdhury, A.K., Carpenter, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of TSIX, encoding an RNA antisense to human XIST, reveals differences from its murine counterpart: implications for X inactivation. Migeon, B.R., Chowdhury, A.K., Dunston, J.A., McIntosh, I. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Antisense regulation in X inactivation and autosomal imprinting. Ogawa, Y., Lee, J.T. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in male mice with targeted disruptions of Xist. Turner, J.M., Mahadevaiah, S.K., Elliott, D.J., Garchon, H.J., Pehrson, J.R., Jaenisch, R., Burgoyne, P.S. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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