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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

X Chromosome Inactivation

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Disease relevance of X Chromosome Inactivation


Psychiatry related information on X Chromosome Inactivation

  • An 806delG deletion causing a V288X stop in the transcription-repression domain was identified in a woman with motor-coordination problems, mild learning disability, and skewed X inactivation; in her sister and daughter, who were affected with classic RTT; and in her hemizygous son, who died from congenital encephalopathy [6].
  • We report on deletion mapping and X inactivation analysis of a gene for X linked non-specific mental retardation (MRX) at Xp21.3-Xp22.11, on the basis of molecular studies in two families with Xp microdeletions involving the DAX-1 gene [7].
  • Girls with Rett syndrome exhibit mosaic expression for the MeCP2 defect at the cellular level, with most patients showing random X-inactivation and approximately equal numbers of cells expressing the normal MeCP2 gene and the mutated MeCP2 gene [8].

High impact information on X Chromosome Inactivation

  • Using a Cre-loxP system, we generated knockout animals lacking Ofd1 and reproduced the main features of the disease, albeit with increased severity, possibly owing to differences of X inactivation patterns between human and mouse [9].
  • Moreover, we suggest that the KAL1 gene product, the extracellular matrix protein anosmin-1, is involved in FGF signaling and propose that the gender difference in anosmin-1 dosage (because KAL1 partially escapes X inactivation) explains the higher prevalence of the disease in males [10].
  • Homozygous Tsix mutant mice reveal a sex-ratio distortion and revert to random X-inactivation [11].
  • The gene Xist initiates the chromosomal silencing process of X inactivation in mammals [12].
  • X inactivation of the OCNC1 channel gene reveals a role for activity-dependent competition in the olfactory system [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of X Chromosome Inactivation


Biological context of X Chromosome Inactivation


Anatomical context of X Chromosome Inactivation


Associations of X Chromosome Inactivation with chemical compounds


Gene context of X Chromosome Inactivation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of X Chromosome Inactivation


  1. Molecular predictors of cognitive involvement in female carriers of fragile X syndrome. Taylor, A.K., Safanda, J.F., Fall, M.Z., Quince, C., Lang, K.A., Hull, C.E., Carpenter, I., Staley, L.W., Hagerman, R.J. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Myotubular myopathy in a girl with a deletion at Xq27-q28 and unbalanced X inactivation assigns the MTM1 gene to a 600-kb region. Dahl, N., Hu, L.J., Chery, M., Fardeau, M., Gilgenkrantz, S., Nivelon-Chevallier, A., Sidaner-Noisette, I., Mugneret, F., Gouyon, J.B., Gal, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Bilateral retinoblastoma in a male patient with an X; 13 translocation: evidence for silencing of the RB1 gene by the spreading of X inactivation. Jones, C., Booth, C., Rita, D., Jazmines, L., Brandt, B., Newlan, A., Horsthemke, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation is a common feature of X-linked mental retardation disorders. Plenge, R.M., Stevenson, R.A., Lubs, H.A., Schwartz, C.E., Willard, H.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Carriers with excessively low factor VIII procoagulant activity (VIII AHF): a study of two unrelated families with mild hemophilia A. Eyster, M.E., Ladda, R.L., Bowman, H.S. Blood (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Rett syndrome and beyond: recurrent spontaneous and familial MECP2 mutations at CpG hotspots. Wan, M., Lee, S.S., Zhang, X., Houwink-Manville, I., Song, H.R., Amir, R.E., Budden, S., Naidu, S., Pereira, J.L., Lo, I.F., Zoghbi, H.Y., Schanen, N.C., Francke, U. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Deletion mapping and X inactivation analysis of a non-specific mental retardation gene at Xp21.3-Xp22.11. Muroya, K., Kinoshita, E., Kamimaki, T., Matsuo, N., Yorifugi, T., Ogata, T. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Associations between MeCP2 mutations, X-chromosome inactivation, and phenotype. Hoffbuhr, K.C., Moses, L.M., Jerdonek, M.A., Naidu, S., Hoffman, E.P. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Oral-facial-digital type I protein is required for primary cilia formation and left-right axis specification. Ferrante, M.I., Zullo, A., Barra, A., Bimonte, S., Messaddeq, N., Studer, M., Dollé, P., Franco, B. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Loss-of-function mutations in FGFR1 cause autosomal dominant Kallmann syndrome. Dodé, C., Levilliers, J., Dupont, J.M., De Paepe, A., Le Dû, N., Soussi-Yanicostas, N., Coimbra, R.S., Delmaghani, S., Compain-Nouaille, S., Baverel, F., Pêcheux, C., Le Tessier, D., Cruaud, C., Delpech, M., Speleman, F., Vermeulen, S., Amalfitano, A., Bachelot, Y., Bouchard, P., Cabrol, S., Carel, J.C., Delemarre-van de Waal, H., Goulet-Salmon, B., Kottler, M.L., Richard, O., Sanchez-Franco, F., Saura, R., Young, J., Petit, C., Hardelin, J.P. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Homozygous Tsix mutant mice reveal a sex-ratio distortion and revert to random X-inactivation. Lee, J.T. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Chromosomal silencing and localization are mediated by different domains of Xist RNA. Wutz, A., Rasmussen, T.P., Jaenisch, R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. X inactivation of the OCNC1 channel gene reveals a role for activity-dependent competition in the olfactory system. Zhao, H., Reed, R.R. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular and cellular defects in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Knoers, N.V., van Os, C.H. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. X chromosome inactivation, XIST, and pursuit of the X-inactivation center. Willard, H.F. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Methylation of CpG sites of two X-linked genes coincides with X-inactivation in the female mouse embryo but not in the germ line. Grant, M., Zuccotti, M., Monk, M. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. A human pseudoautosomal gene, ADP/ATP translocase, escapes X-inactivation whereas a homologue on Xq is subject to X-inactivation. Schiebel, K., Weiss, B., Wöhrle, D., Rappold, G. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Homologous ribosomal protein genes on the human X and Y chromosomes: escape from X inactivation and possible implications for Turner syndrome. Fisher, E.M., Beer-Romero, P., Brown, L.G., Ridley, A., McNeil, J.A., Lawrence, J.B., Willard, H.F., Bieber, F.R., Page, D.C. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Variation in regulation of steroid sulphatase locus in mammals. Crocker, M., Craig, I. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Disruption of imprinted X inactivation by parent-of-origin effects at Tsix. Lee, J.T. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of ageing on reactivation of the human X-linked HPRT locus. Migeon, B.R., Axelman, J., Beggs, A.H. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Severe alport phenotype in a woman with two missense mutations in the same COL4A5 gene and preponderant inactivation of the X chromosome carrying the normal allele. Guo, C., Van Damme, B., Vanrenterghem, Y., Devriendt, K., Cassiman, J.J., Marynen, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. X chromosome choice occurs independently of asynchronous replication timing. Gribnau, J., Luikenhuis, S., Hochedlinger, K., Monkhorst, K., Jaenisch, R. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Application of carrier testing to genetic counseling for X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Allen, R.C., Nachtman, R.G., Rosenblatt, H.M., Belmont, J.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Developmentally regulated alterations in Polycomb repressive complex 1 proteins on the inactive X chromosome. Plath, K., Talbot, D., Hamer, K.M., Otte, A.P., Yang, T.P., Jaenisch, R., Panning, B. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Origin of mutations in two families with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Francke, U., Ochs, H.D., Darras, B.T., Swaroop, A. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential methylation of Xite and CTCF sites in Tsix mirrors the pattern of X-inactivation choice in mice. Boumil, R.M., Ogawa, Y., Sun, B.K., Huynh, K.D., Lee, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of late replication timing in the silencing of X-linked genes. Hansen, R.S., Canfield, T.K., Fjeld, A.D., Gartler, S.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Early hematopoietic reconstitution after clinical stem cell transplantation: evidence for stochastic stem cell behavior and limited acceleration in telomere loss. Thornley, I., Sutherland, R., Wynn, R., Nayar, R., Sung, L., Corpus, G., Kiss, T., Lipton, J., Doyle, J., Saunders, F., Kamel-Reid, S., Freedman, M., Messner, H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre. Lee, J.T., Davidow, L.S., Warshawsky, D. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Localization of the X inactivation centre on the human X chromosome in Xq13. Brown, C.J., Lafreniere, R.G., Powers, V.E., Sebastio, G., Ballabio, A., Pettigrew, A.L., Ledbetter, D.H., Levy, E., Craig, I.W., Willard, H.F. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Xite, X-inactivation intergenic transcription elements that regulate the probability of choice. Ogawa, Y., Lee, J.T. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of TSIX, encoding an RNA antisense to human XIST, reveals differences from its murine counterpart: implications for X inactivation. Migeon, B.R., Chowdhury, A.K., Dunston, J.A., McIntosh, I. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites near the polymorphic CAG repeat in the human androgen-receptor gene correlates with X chromosome inactivation. Allen, R.C., Zoghbi, H.Y., Moseley, A.B., Rosenblatt, H.M., Belmont, J.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. X chromosome inactivation of the human TIMP gene. Brown, C.J., Flenniken, A.M., Williams, B.R., Willard, H.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Androgen receptor CAGn repeat length influences phenotype of 47,XXY (Klinefelter) syndrome. Zinn, A.R., Ramos, P., Elder, F.F., Kowal, K., Samango-Sprouse, C., Ross, J.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of familial Xp deletions. Wandstrat, A.E., Conroy, J.M., Zurcher, V.L., Pasztor, L.M., Clark, B.A., Zackowski, J.L., Schwartz, S. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. A chromosomal memory triggered by Xist regulates histone methylation in X inactivation. Kohlmaier, A., Savarese, F., Lachner, M., Martens, J., Jenuwein, T., Wutz, A. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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