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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in endometrial flushings from pre- and post-menopausal women and from women with endometrial adenocarcinoma.

The presence of metalloproteinase activity in endometrial flushings obtained from premenopausal women, during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, control post-menopausal women and women with post-menopausal bleeding (PMB) with or without adenocarcinoma was analysed by zymography. In addition, quantitative measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-3, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in the flushings were obtained by ELISA. The zymography results showed eight bands of activity, with molecular weights ranging from 51 to 208 kDa in the flushings from pre-menopausal women and post-menopausal women, particularly those with adenocarcinoma. Both zymography and ELISA showed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 were the major metalloproteinases found in the flushings and only low concentrations of MMP-3 were found. Concentrations of MMP-2 in pre-menopausal women were higher in flushings obtained during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle than those obtained in the proliferative phase (P < 0.05), suggesting that it may play a role in embryo implantation. Concentrations of MMP-2 (P < 0.001), MMP-9 (P < 0.05) and TIMP-1 (P < 0.001) in the flushings from post-menopausal control women were lower than those from pre-menopausal women. Concentrations of MMP-2 (P < 0.05) and TIMP-1 (P < 0.05) were higher in flushings from women with PMB without carcinoma compared with post-menopausal controls and concentrations of MMP-9 (P < 0.01) and TIMP-1 (P < 0.05) in flushings from women with adenocarcinoma were higher than in post-menopausal controls. Among subjects with PMB, concentrations of MMP-9 in women with adenocarcinoma were higher than those without carcinoma (P < 0.05). Our results show that concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, but not MMP-3, are associated with endometrial activity and, therefore, may have a role in the breakdown of endometrial tissue. In addition, the increased concentrations of MMP-9 in flushings of women with adenocarcinoma indicate that this particular proteinase is associated with the presence of endometrial neoplastic cells.[1]


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