The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Flushing

  • Similarly concentrations of CA-125 were significantly lower in flushings from recurrent miscarriage women compared to controls on both day LH + 10 (median: 1555, range: 47-6710 U/ml versus median: 6385.5, range 2884-27 731 U/ml, P < 0.01) and LH+12 (median: 2892, range: 956-9974 U/ml versus median: 7127.5, range: 1591-21 343 U/ml; P < 0.05) [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with unexplained infertility have reduced concentrations of PP14 in uterine flushings but not in plasma samples as compared with normal fertile women [2].
  • Uterine flushings and fluids contained an anionic factor(s) that at 4 degrees C competed with 125I-labelled mouse EGF for binding to EGF receptors on an endometrial carcinoma cell line and stimulated DNA synthesis in Balb/c mouse 3T3 fibroblasts [3].

High impact information on Flushing


Chemical compound and disease context of Flushing

  • The anti-serum used in this study was obtained 6 weeks after the initial injection and cross-reacted with antigens on Western blots of oviduct flushings and oviduct culture media obtained from follicular stage and estradiol-treated baboons [9].
  • Concentrations of retinol and RBP increased 7- to 8-fold (P less than 0.01) in flushings where filamentous conceptuses were present [10].
  • Uterine luminal flushings were obtained from cyclic cows (Days 2-20 of estrous cycle) and early pregnant cows (Days 17-22) [11].
  • Total recoverable glucose was greater (P less than 0.01) in uterine flushings from pregnant gilts, but pregnancy status had no effect on total recoverable glucose in pony mare uterine flushings [12].
  • Fructose was undetectable in uterine flushings from nonpregnant gilts and pony mares and pregnant gilts and pony mares prior to Day 14, but occurred in increasing amounts between Days 14 and 18 or 20 of pregnancy [12].

Biological context of Flushing


Anatomical context of Flushing

  • Embryos collected from oviductal and uterine flushings were graded for quality, and uteri and ovaries were fixed in formalin [18].
  • Uterine flushings (UF) and endometrium were obtained from ovariectomized untreated animals, ovariectomized animals treated with E (approximately 5-10 pg/ml) for 6 days (6E) and ovariectomized animals primed with E for 6 days then treated with P (approximately 1.5-3 ng/ml), in the continued presence of E, for an additional 6 days (6EP) [19].
  • Folate binding was measured by incubation of aliquots of uterine flushings, allantoic fluid, or placental microsomal membranes with 0.5-4 nM [(3)H]folate [20].
  • An estrogen-dependent polypeptide (CUPED), which was purified from uterine flushings of estrogen-treated cats, was localized in endometrial epithelial cells of cats using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical staining procedure [21].
  • Concentrations of progesterone in plasma and amounts of ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1), protein, and prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in uterine flushings were determined [22].

Gene context of Flushing

  • In women suffering from recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, the concentration of MUC1 in flushings was significantly lower than in the controls on day LH + 10 [23].
  • Concentrations of MMP-2 (P < 0.001), MMP-9 (P < 0.05) and TIMP-1 (P < 0.001) in the flushings from post-menopausal control women were lower than those from pre-menopausal women [24].
  • By means of western blot analysis one 18 kDa aFGF and two bFGF proteins (16 and 18 kDa, respectively) were detected in oviductal flushings [25].
  • Finally, N-terminal amino acid sequencing of FBP purified from Day 15 pregnant uterine flushings matched the secreted form of FBP mRNA [26].
  • Concentrations of IGFBP-1 in uterine flushings did not change on either day [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flushing


  1. Endometrial protein PP14 and CA-125 in recurrent miscarriage patients; correlation with pregnancy outcome. Dalton, C.F., Laird, S.M., Estdale, S.E., Saravelos, H.G., Li, T.C. Hum. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Placental protein 14 levels in uterine flushing and plasma of women with unexplained infertility. Mackenna, A., Li, T.C., Dalton, C., Bolton, A., Cooke, I. Fertil. Steril. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. High molecular mass forms of epidermal growth factor in pig uterine secretions. Brigstock, D.R., Kim, G.Y., Steffen, C.L., Liu, A., Vegunta, R.K., Ismail, N.H. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Fertilization: a uterine glycosaminoglycan stimulates the conversion of sperm proacrosin to acrosin. Wincek, T.J., Parrish, R.F., Polakoski, K.L. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Purification and characterization of novel heparin-binding growth factors in uterine secretory fluids. Identification as heparin-regulated Mr 10,000 forms of connective tissue growth factor. Brigstock, D.R., Steffen, C.L., Kim, G.Y., Vegunta, R.K., Diehl, J.R., Harding, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel family of progesterone-induced, retinol-binding proteins from uterine secretions of the pig. Clawitter, J., Trout, W.E., Burke, M.G., Araghi, S., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Requirement of an essential thiol group and ferric iron for the activity of the progesterone-induced porcine uterine purple phosphatase. Schlosnagle, D.C., Sander, E.G., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of the glycosylated beta-lactoglobulin homolog, glycodelin [placental protein 14:(PP14)] in the baboon (Papio anubis) uterus. Hausermann, H.M., Donnelly, K.M., Bell, S.C., Verhage, H.G., Fazleabas, A.T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunological characterization and immunocytochemical localization of oviduct-specific glycoproteins in the baboon (Papio anubis). Verhage, H.G., Boice, M.L., Mavrogianis, P., Donnelly, K., Fazleabas, A.T. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Steroid regulation of the synthesis and secretion of retinol-binding protein by the uterus of the pig. Trout, W.E., Hall, J.A., Stallings-Mann, M.L., Galvin, J.M., Anthony, R.V., Roberts, R.M. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization and immunolocalization of bovine uterine retinol-binding protein. Liu, K.H., Godkin, J.D. Biol. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid and glucosephosphate isomerase enzymatic activity in uterine flushings from nonpregnant and pregnant gilts and pony mares. Zavy, M.T., Clark, W.R., Sharp, D.C., Roberts, R.M., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. In vivo infusion of interleukin-1beta and chorionic gonadotropin induces endometrial changes that mimic early pregnancy events in the baboon. Strakova, Z., Mavrogianis, P., Meng, X., Hastings, J.M., Jackson, K.S., Cameo, P., Brudney, A., Knight, O., Fazleabas, A.T. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of prostaglandin F-2alpha and uterine extracts on progesterone secretion in vitro by superfused pig corpora lutea. Watson, J., Walker, F.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Concentration of endometrial protein PP14 in uterine flushings throughout the menstrual cycle in normal, fertile women. Li, T.C., Ling, E., Dalton, C., Bolton, A.E., Cooke, I.D. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes of progesterone content of rat uterine flushings in relation to serum concentrations of progesterone during the oestrous cycle. Bonnamy, P.J., Benhaim, A., Leymarie, P. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. The protein content of mouse uterine flushings during pseudopregnancy. Aitken, R.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Histological characteristics of the uterine endometrium and corpus luteum during early embryogenesis and the relationship to embryonic mortality in the domestic cat. Roth, T.L., Munson, L., Swanson, W.F., Wildt, D.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Estrogen- and progesterone-dependent secretory changes in the uterus of the sheep. Murray, M.K., Sower, S.A. Biol. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Secreted and placental membrane forms of folate-binding protein occur sequentially during pregnancy in swine. Kim, J.G., Vallet, J.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The immunocytochemical localization of a cat uterine protein that is estrogen dependent (CUPED). Murray, M.K., Verhage, H.G. Biol. Reprod. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between variation in conceptus development and differences in estrous cycle duration in ewes. Nephew, K.P., McClure, K.E., Ott, T.L., Dubois, D.H., Bazer, F.W., Pope, W.F. Biol. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. MUC1 in secretory phase endometrium: expression in precisely dated biopsies and flushings from normal and recurrent miscarriage patients. Hey, N.A., Li, T.C., Devine, P.L., Graham, R.A., Saravelos, H., Aplin, J.D. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in endometrial flushings from pre- and post-menopausal women and from women with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Laird, S.M., Dalton, C.F., Okon, M.A., Bunning, R.A., Marshall, R., Li, T.C. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Detection of mRNA and immunoreactive proteins for acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor and expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptors in the bovine oviduct. Gabler, C., Lauer, B., Einspanier, A., Schams, D., Einspanier, R. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation of complementary deoxyribonucleic acids encoding putative secreted and membrane-bound folate binding proteins from endometrium of swine. Vallet, J.L., Smith, T.P., Sonstegard, T., Pearson, P.L., Christenson, R.K., Klemcke, H.G. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 during induced regression of bovine corpora lutea. Sayre, B.L., Taft, R., Inskeep, E.K., Killefer, J. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Quantification of an estrogen-dependent cat uterine protein (CUPED) in uterine flushings of estrogen- and progesterone-treated ovariectomized cats by radioimmunoassay. Murray, M.K., Verhage, H.G., Jaffe, R.C. Biol. Reprod. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and characterization of intrauterine folate-binding proteins from swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K., Klemcke, H.G. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Glutathione is present in reproductive tract secretions and improves development of mouse embryos after chemically induced glutathione depletion. Gardiner, C.S., Salmen, J.J., Brandt, C.J., Stover, S.K. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Analysis of osteopontin at the maternal-placental interface in pigs. Garlow, J.E., Ka, H., Johnson, G.A., Burghardt, R.C., Jaeger, L.A., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities