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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

Urodynamics are still essential for diagnosis and prognosis of neurogenic lower urinary tract-dysfunction and can not be replaced by other means of investigation so far, neither by a thorough clinical investigation nor by sophisticated means like magnetic resonance imaging. The findings with clinical investigations are specific, but not sensitive enough, and the spinal cord lesions may sometimes be beyond the resolution of magnetic resonance-scanning. Pharmacotherapy is still the corner stone in the management of detrusor hyperreflexia. Further studies with tolterodine, oxybutynin, trospiumchloride and propiverine have increased our knowledge about these substances. Capsaicin was proved to be the effective substance and not the alcoholic solution, which serves as a carrier. Intrathecal clonidine may represent a new conservative reversible alternative treatment for detrusor hyperreflexia. Experiments with detrusor strips from end-stage MMC-patients may explain the relative resistance of the low compliant bladder to the common anticholinergic/spasmolytic therapy. The differential indication for bladder augmentation, either using segments of the gastrointestinal-tract or performing a partial detrusor myectomy is ongoing, favourable results are reported for both techniques. Sacral posterior root rhizotomy is able to abolish detrusor hyperreflexia and therefore recommended for tetra- and paraplegics, however autonomic dysreflexia, if present, can not be totally abolished. Collagen injections for neuropathic sphincter incompetence can not be recommended as demonstrated in children with congenital neuropathy, a new design of an artificial sphincter must stand the test of time.[1]


  1. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Madersbacher, H.G. Current opinion in urology. (1999) [Pubmed]
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