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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of bovine leukemia virus tax and pol mRNA levels by interleukin-2 and -10.

Recently, particular cytokines have been identified to affect progression of a variety of diseases and retrovirus infections. Previously, we demonstrated that interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, and gamma interferon increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from animals with early disease and decreased in PBMCs from animals with late disease stages of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection. In contrast, IL-10 increased with disease progression. To examine the effects of these cytokines on BLV expression, BLV tax and pol mRNA and p24 protein were quantified by competitive PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. IL-10 inhibited BLV tax and pol mRNA levels in BLV-infected PBMCs; however, the inhibitory effect of IL-10 was prevented in PBMCs depleted of monocytes and/or macrophages (monocyte/macrophages). To determine whether these factors were secreted or monocyte/macrophage associated, monocyte/macrophage-depleted PBMCs were cultured with isolated monocyte/macrophages in transwells where contact between monocyte/macrophages and nonadherent PBMCs was blocked. BLV tax and pol mRNA levels increased in transwell cultures similar to cultures containing nonseparated cells, and IL-10 addition inhibited the increase of BLV tax and pol mRNA. These results suggest that monocyte/macrophages secrete soluble factor(s) that increases BLV mRNA levels and that secretion of these soluble factor(s) could be inhibited by IL-10. In contrast, IL-2 increased BLV tax and pol mRNA and p24 protein production. Thus, IL-10 production by BLV-infected animals with late stage disease may serve to control BLV mRNA levels, while IL-2 may increase BLV mRNA in the early disease stage. To determine a correlation between cell proliferation and BLV expression, the effect of IL-2 and IL-10 on PBMC proliferation was tested. As anticipated, IL-2 stimulated while IL-10 suppressed antigen-specific PBMC proliferation. The present study, combined with our previous findings, suggests that increased IL-10 production in late disease stages suppresses BLV mRNA levels, while IL-2-activated immune responses stimulate BLV expression by BLV-infected B cells.[1]


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