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Gene Review

IL2  -  interleukin 2

Bos taurus

Synonyms: IL-2, TCGF
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Disease relevance of IL2


Psychiatry related information on IL2

  • At 20 months after treatment, the IL-2 therapy group had 63% complete regressions; the combination group had 38% complete regressions, which were significantly higher than the IL-12 group, which had 0% complete regressions at 20 months, despite having 29% complete regressions at 6 months [5].

High impact information on IL2


Chemical compound and disease context of IL2


Biological context of IL2


Anatomical context of IL2

  • The transcription of CD25 and CD152 genes increased, whereas that of interleukin-2 (IL-2) decreased. gammadelta T cells appeared to be unresponsive [14].
  • Proinflammatory cytokines in bovine colostrum potentiate the mitogenic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from newborn calves through IL-2 and CD25 expression [17].
  • Expression of Tac antigen component of bovine interleukin-2 receptor in different leukocyte populations infected with Theileria parva or Theileria annulata [16].
  • One of the three mAb was a strong inhibitor of IL-2-dependent proliferation of bovine lymphocytes [18].
  • In this study, five interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent cell lines were established from affected cattle to examine their growth regulation and cytokine transcription [19].

Associations of IL2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of IL2


Other interactions of IL2

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels for the IL2, IL8, and IL1RN genes were significantly downregulated across the time course of infection in both breeds [25].
  • Although IL-2 mRNA expression in ConA-stimulated PBMC from newborn calves was weaker than that in those from adult cows of ConA-stimulated controls, the expression levels became comparable after pretreatment with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma [17].
  • The ability of IL2 to synergize with IFN-gamma to augment both the IgM and IgG2 responses implicates a TH1-like subset in regulation of this isotype [26].
  • Unlike DNA or RNA synthesis, activation of T cells could be demonstrated in SFM with or without iron as shown by the normal induction of c-fos and early growth response gene mRNA, normal expression of IL2 and transferrin receptors, and normal IL2 production, despite the arrest of cells in G0/G1 [27].
  • All six clones had the BoT2+ BoT4- BoT8+ phenotype, were dependent on both specific antigen and T cell growth factor for proliferation and were restricted by determinants on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL2


  1. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2. Cerretti, D.P., McKereghan, K., Larsen, A., Cantrell, M.A., Anderson, D., Gillis, S., Cosman, D., Baker, P.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypophysectomy and growth hormone replacement effects on multiple immune responses in rats. Exon, J.H., Bussiere, J.L., Williams, J.R. Brain Behav. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of long terminal repeat sequences of HTLV-III. Starcich, B., Ratner, L., Josephs, S.F., Okamoto, T., Gallo, R.C., Wong-Staal, F. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Application of an interleukin 2 slow delivery system to the immunotherapy of established murine colon 26 adenocarcinoma liver metastases. Fujiwara, T., Sakagami, K., Matsuoka, J., Shiozaki, S., Uchida, S., Fujioka, K., Takada, Y., Onoda, T., Orita, K. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Local interleukin-2 and interleukin-12 therapy of bovine ocular squamous cell carcinomas. Stewart, R.J., Masztalerz, A., Jacobs, J.J., Den Otter, W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Target of rapamycin in yeast, TOR2, is an essential phosphatidylinositol kinase homolog required for G1 progression. Kunz, J., Henriquez, R., Schneider, U., Deuter-Reinhard, M., Movva, N.R., Hall, M.N. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of natural and recombinant interleukin 2 on endothelial cell arachidonate metabolism. Induction of de novo synthesis of prostaglandin H synthase. Frasier-Scott, K., Hatzakis, H., Seong, D., Jones, C.M., Wu, K.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes. Dobbelaere, D.A., Coquerelle, T.M., Roditi, I.J., Eichhorn, M., Williams, R.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Translation of lymphocyte mRNA into biologically-active Interleukin 2 in oocytes. Bleackley, R.C., Caplan, B., Havele, C., Ritzel, R.G., Mosmann, T.R., Farrar, J.J., Paetkau, V. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. T cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis in red deer, a large animal model for tuberculosis. Cross, M.L., Chinn, N.D., Griffin, J.F., Buchan, G.S. Immunol. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Multiple administration with interleukin-2 potentiates antigen-specific responses to subunit vaccination with bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein IV. Hughes, H.P., Campos, M., van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S., Zamb, T., Sordillo, L.M., Godson, D., Babiuk, L.A. Vaccine (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro effects of live and killed Brucella abortus on bovine cytokine and prostaglandin E2 production. Stevens, M.G., Olsen, S.C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Recombinant bovine interleukin-2 and dry cow therapy: efficacy to cure and prevent intramammary infections, safety, and effect on gestation. Erskine, R.J., Bartlett, P.C., Tavernier, S.R., Fowler, L.H., Walker, R.D., Seguin, J.H., Shuster, D. J. Dairy Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-Term Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C1 Exposure Induces Soluble Factor-Mediated Immunosuppression by Bovine CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells. Seo, K.S., Lee, S.U., Park, Y.H., Davis, W.C., Fox, L.K., Bohach, G.A. Infect. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning of a functional bovine interleukin 2 cDNA. Reeves, R., Spies, A.G., Nissen, M.S., Buck, C.D., Weinberg, A.D., Barr, P.J., Magnuson, N.S., Magnuson, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of Tac antigen component of bovine interleukin-2 receptor in different leukocyte populations infected with Theileria parva or Theileria annulata. Dobbelaere, D.A., Prospero, T.D., Roditi, I.J., Kelke, C., Baumann, I., Eichhorn, M., Williams, R.O., Ahmed, J.S., Baldwin, C.L., Clevers, H. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Proinflammatory cytokines in bovine colostrum potentiate the mitogenic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from newborn calves through IL-2 and CD25 expression. Yamanaka, H., Hagiwara, K., Kirisawa, R., Iwai, H. Microbiol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Selection of BoCD25 monoclonal antibodies by screening mouse L cells transfected with the bovine p55-interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor gene. Naessens, J., Sileghem, M., MacHugh, N., Park, Y.H., Davis, W.C., Toye, P. Immunology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2)-infected bovine T-cell lines. Schock, A., Collins, R.A., Reid, H.W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain gene expression by cytochalasin B and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in T lymphocytes. Gunes, H., Mastro, A.M. Cell Prolif. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Intracellular accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin inhibits phytohemagglutin-induced proliferation and interleukin-2 production of human lymphocytes. Haga, Y., Tempero, M.A., Kay, D., Zetterman, R.K. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of suppressor activity by tumor-promoting phorbol esters in primary cultures of lymph node cells. Hurley, D.J., Mastro, A.M. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Binding of interleukin 2 to gangliosides. Parker, J., Caldini, G., Krishnamurti, C., Ahrens, P.B., Ankel, H. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. DNA vaccination against bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces humoral and cellular responses in cattle with evidence for protection against viral challenge. Nobiron, I., Thompson, I., Brownlie, J., Collins, M.E. Vaccine (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Cytokine mRNA profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense. O'Gorman, G.M., Park, S.D., Hill, E.W., Meade, K.G., Mitchell, L.C., Agaba, M., Gibson, J.P., Hanotte, O., Naessens, J., Kemp, S.J., MacHugh, D.E. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. IFN-gamma stimulates IgG2 production from bovine B cells costimulated with anti-mu and mitogen. Estes, D.M., Closser, N.M., Allen, G.K. Cell. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Essential fatty acids and iron are involved at distinct stages of the proliferative cycle but not in the activation of human T cells. Or, R., Kovar, J., Domenico, J., Gelfand, E.W. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Bovine cytotoxic T cell clones which recognize lymphoblasts infected with two antigenically different stocks of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. Morrison, W.I., Goddeeris, B.M., Teale, A.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of cortisol in vitro and in vivo on production of bovine interleukin 2. Blecha, F., Baker, P.E. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Regional localization of the bovine interleukin-2 (IL2) gene to chromosome 17q22-->q23 by in situ hybridization. Chowdhary, B.P., Hassanane, M.S., Gustavsson, I. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. The purification and properties of human T cell growth factor. Mier, J.W., Gallo, R.C. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for two discrete phases of IL-2 production in bovine lymphocytes. Weinberg, A.D., Magnuson, N.S., Reeves, R., Wyatt, C.R., Magnuson, J.A. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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