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Gene Review

IL10  -  interleukin 10

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Disease relevance of IL10


High impact information on IL10

  • The inhibitory effect of IL-10 on BLV expression depends on soluble factors secreted by macrophages [6].
  • Type 1 cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-12, and gamma interferon) increase in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of animals with an early disease stage of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, while IL-10 increases in animals with a late disease stage [6].
  • Although IL-10 has an immunosuppressive role in the host immune system, IL-10 also inhibits BLV tax and pol mRNA levels in vitro [6].
  • The present study, combined with our previous findings, suggests that increased IL-10 production in late disease stages suppresses BLV mRNA levels, while IL-2-activated immune responses stimulate BLV expression by BLV-infected B cells [7].
  • In contrast, IL-10 increased with disease progression [7].

Biological context of IL10


Anatomical context of IL10

  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Monocytes obtained from cows with subclinical infection with MAP had upregulated expression of IL-10 and SOCS-3 within the first 2 hours after exposure to MAP organisms [1].
  • When cytokine expression by macrophages incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was compared to those of macrophages incubated with M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cells showed greater expression of IL-10 (6 and 24 h) and less expression of TNF-alpha (6 h) [2].
  • An increase in the transcription of IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) genes in SEC1-stimulated cultures was attributed to the CD4(+) CD25(+) T-cell subpopulation [13].
  • In vitro infection with Theileria parva is associated with IL10 expression in all bovine lymphocyte lineages [8].
  • Analysis of cytokine mRNA indicates that bovine B cells constitutively express tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-1beta transcripts in vitro, while IL-10 mRNA expression is induced following sIgM cross-linking [14].

Associations of IL10 with chemical compounds

  • Chemical inhibition of the MAPK(p38) signaling pathway (SB203580) resulted in decreased expression of IL-10 and increased expression of IL-12 at 6h post-infection [15].
  • The cells also expressed cytokine transcripts, namely, those of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-10 [16].
  • Production of IL-10 was also evident following culture with CD40L+ cells or lipopolysaccharide primarily by the SIRPalpha+ CC81Ag- DC [17].

Other interactions of IL10

  • RESULTS: Monocytes from infected cows had greater expression of IL-10 and SOCS-3 at 2 hours of coincubation with MAP and lower expression of TNF-alpha and IL-12 when results for all incubation times were combined [1].
  • In this report, mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 (type 1 cytokines), and of IL-4 and IL-10 (type 2 cytokines) were evaluated in concanavalin A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from BLV-infected sheep [18].
  • Within 32 h of challenge, increased levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-12 were detected, however, the elevated levels of these cytokines were not sustained for longer than a 24h period [19].
  • In particular, S. uberis infection was characterized by the sustained elevation of higher milk levels of IL-1 beta, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and C5a, relative to S. marcescens infection [20].
  • The results showed that the cell lines transcribed message for IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-4 and IL-10 whereas no mRNA for IL-2 or IL-1beta was detected [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL10

  • In addition, using RT-PCR with peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen leukocytes, the Griess reaction, and a killing assay, we provide evidence for the importance of iNOS in a successful immune response to B. bovis infection and for high and persistent IL-10 mRNA expression when the immune response is unsuccessful [5].
  • Optimal conditions were then used to deliver increasing amounts of IL-10 plasmid intra-articularly (i.a.) in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model [22].
  • No consistent differences were seen in any of the cell populations when the samples were analyzed for IL-10 and levels of mRNA for IL-2 and IL-4 were low and highly variable in both infected and control groups in all 3 lymphocyte populations [23].


  1. Expression of interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 associated with susceptibility of cattle to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Weiss, D.J., Evanson, O.A., Souza, C.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential responses of bovine macrophages to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Weiss, D.J., Evanson, O.A., Moritz, A., Deng, M.Q., Abrahamsen, M.S. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. T cell populations and cytokine expression in milk derived from normal and bacteria-infected bovine mammary glands. Taylor, B.C., Keefe, R.G., Dellinger, J.D., Nakamura, Y., Cullor, J.S., Stott, J.L. Cell. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytokine mRNA expression in B cells from bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. Amills, M., Norimine, J., Olmstead, C.A., Lewin, H.A. Cytokine (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Babesia bovis immunity. In vitro and in vivo evidence for IL-10 regulation of IFN-gamma and iNOS. Goff, W.L., Johnson, W.C., Cluff, C.W. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Prostaglandin E(2) increases bovine leukemia virus tax and pol mRNA levels via cyclooxygenase 2: regulation by interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and bovine leukemia virus. Pyeon, D., Diaz, F.J., Splitter, G.A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of bovine leukemia virus tax and pol mRNA levels by interleukin-2 and -10. Pyeon, D., Splitter, G.A. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. In vitro infection with Theileria parva is associated with IL10 expression in all bovine lymphocyte lineages. McKeever, D.J., Nyanjui, J.K., Ballingall, K.T. Parasite Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissues of cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: evidence for an inherent proinflammatory gene expression pattern. Coussens, P.M., Verman, N., Coussens, M.A., Elftman, M.D., McNulty, A.M. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. IFN-gamma enhances bovine macrophage responsiveness to Mycobacterium bovis: Impact on bacterial replication, cytokine release and macrophage apoptosis. Denis, M., Wedlock, D.N., Buddle, B.M. Immunol. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of IL-10 in iNOS and cytokine mRNA expression during in vitro differentiation of bovine mononuclear phagocytes. Goff, W.L., O'Rourke, K.I., Johnson, W.C., Lacy, P.A., Davis, W.C., Wyatt, C.R. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluation of TNF-alpha, IL-8 and IL-10 transcriptional activity in milk from healthy dairy cows during lactation period. Britti, D., Peli, A., Massimini, G., Polci, A., Luciani, A., Famigli-Bergamini, P. Vet. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Long-Term Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C1 Exposure Induces Soluble Factor-Mediated Immunosuppression by Bovine CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells. Seo, K.S., Lee, S.U., Park, Y.H., Davis, W.C., Fox, L.K., Bohach, G.A. Infect. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Activation of bovine B cells via surface immunoglobulin M cross-linking or CD40 ligation results in different B-cell phenotypes. Haas, K.M., Estes, D.M. Immunology (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Mitogen activated protein kinase(p38) pathway is an important component of the anti-inflammatory response in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. Souza, C.D., Evanson, O.A., Weiss, D.J. Microb. Pathog. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Purified bovine WC1+ gamma delta T lymphocytes are activated by staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 superantigens: proliferation response, TCR V gamma profile and cytokines expression. Fikri, Y., Denis, O., Pastoret, P., Nyabenda, J. Immunol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Differences in cytokine synthesis by the sub-populations of dendritic cells from afferent lymph. Stephens, S.A., Brownlie, J., Charleston, B., Howard, C.J. Immunology (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Interferon-gamma expression associated with suppression of bovine leukemia virus at the early phase of infection in sheep. Usui, T., Konnai, S., Ohashi, K., Onuma, M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. The bovine innate immune response during experimentally-induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis. Bannerman, D.D., Chockalingam, A., Paape, M.J., Hope, J.C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Innate immune response to intramammary infection with Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus uberis. Bannerman, D.D., Paape, M.J., Goff, J.P., Kimura, K., Lippolis, J.D., Hope, J.C. Vet. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2)-infected bovine T-cell lines. Schock, A., Collins, R.A., Reid, H.W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. A comparative study on intra-articular versus systemic gene electrotransfer in experimental arthritis. Khoury, M., Bigey, P., Louis-Plence, P., Noel, D., Rhinn, H., Scherman, D., Jorgensen, C., Apparailly, F. The journal of gene medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Local ileal cytokine responses in cattle during a primary infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. Canals, A., Pasquali, P., Zarlenga, D.S., Fayer, R., Almeria, S., Gasbarre, L.C. J. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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