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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of the chondrogenic-inducing activity from bovine dentin (bCIA) as a low-molecular-mass amelogenin polypeptide.

Dentin extracellular matrix has been shown to contain components capable of inducing chondrogenesis and osteogenesis at ectopic sites when implanted in vivo, and chondrogenesis in cultures of embryonic muscle-derived fibroblasts (EMF) in vitro. The polypeptide responsible, called the chondrogenic-inducing agent (CIA), has been isolated from a 4.0-M guanidinium hydrochloride extract of demineralized bovine dentin matrix. Following Sephacryl S-100 chromatography, CIA activity was identified in fractions by assay for uptake of [35S]-SO4 into proteoglycan by the EMF after 24 hrs in culture. The active fraction induced the EMF to produce type II collagen mRNA and decrease production of type I collagen mRNA after 5 days in culture. The EMF + CIA, cultured for 4 to 7 wks, formed toluidine-blue- and alizarin-red-stainable nodules, indicative of chondrogenic induction. In vivo implants in rat muscle with collagen carrier produced ectopic bone after 7 wks. The CIA was brought to near-homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, tested at each step by EMF [35S]-SO4-incorporation assays. The CIA components had masses in the ranges of 6000 to 10,000 Da by both mass spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. The CIA amino acid composition, NH2-terminal, and internal amino acid sequences were determined. These data showed unequivocally that the CIA peptides were derived from bovine amelogenin. The peptides contain the amino-terminal portion of the bovine amelogenin. The presence of these chondrogenic/osteogenic amelogenin-polypeptides in dentin matrix leads us to hypothesize that they may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal signaling during tooth development interactions-the first time a function has been indicated for these molecules.[1]


  1. Identification of the chondrogenic-inducing activity from bovine dentin (bCIA) as a low-molecular-mass amelogenin polypeptide. Nebgen, D.R., Inoue, H., Sabsay, B., Wei, K., Ho, C.S., Veis, A. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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