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Gene Review

Amelx  -  amelogenin, X-linked

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Amel, Amelogenin, X isoform, Amgx, LRAP, Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide
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Disease relevance of Amelx

  • In the present study, we investigated the localization of amelogenin in odontogenic tumors, using an anti-amelogenin polyclonal antibody [1].

High impact information on Amelx

  • Two specific cDNAs comprised from amelogenin gene exons 2,3,4,5,6d,7 and 2,3,5,6d, 7 were identified [2].
  • Low molecular mass amelogenin-related polypeptides extracted from mineralized dentin have the ability to affect the differentiation pathway of embryonic muscle fibroblasts in culture and lead to the formation of mineralized matrix in in vivo implants [2].
  • Low amounts of amelogenin RNA persisted after the differentiation of ameloblasts into the maturative stage [3].
  • The expression of amelogenin mRNA in growing rat molars was studied [3].
  • The early amelogenin RNA expression occurred adjacent to the initial deposition of the dentin matrix [3].

Biological context of Amelx


Anatomical context of Amelx


Associations of Amelx with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Amelx

  • The distance from the cell surface at which immunolabeling for amelogenin stabilized generally corresponded to the point at which that for ameloblastin started to show a net reduction [16].

Other interactions of Amelx


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amelx

  • In these studies, we have used anchored PCR to identify alternatively spliced amelogenin cDNA sequences in the rat [4].
  • Northern blot experiments showed that most amelogenin RNA in rat teeth was represented by two bands of 1.1 and 0.8 kb [3].
  • In this paper, we studied the pattern of expression of four mineralizing protein genes (type I collagen, amelogenin, DSPP and osteocalcin) during the development of rat teeth by in situ hybridization on serial sections [5].
  • The aim of the present study was to use a combination of atomic and chemical force microscopy to characterize developing enamel crystal surfaces and to determine their relationship with endogenous enamel matrix protein (amelogenin) [23].
  • First, Western blot analysis of microdissected enamel matrix (secretion and maturation stages) showed no clear evidence of dysregulation of amelogenin protein processing in -D rats as compared with the controls [7].


  1. Immunohistochemical localization of amelogenin in human odontogenic tumors, using a polyclonal antibody against bovine amelogenin. Abiko, Y., Murata, M., Ito, Y., Taira, T., Nishimura, M., Arisue, M., Inoue, T., Shimono, M., Kuboki, Y., Kaku, T. Medical electron microscopy : official journal of the Clinical Electron Microscopy Society of Japan. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific amelogenin gene splice products have signaling effects on cells in culture and in implants in vivo. Veis, A., Tompkins, K., Alvares, K., Wei, K., Wang, L., Wang, X.S., Brownell, A.G., Jengh, S.M., Healy, K.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of amelogenin mRNA sequences during development of rat molars. Wurtz, T., Lundmark, C., Christersson, C., Bawden, J.W., Slaby, I., Hammarström, L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Alternative splicing of amelogenin mRNA from rat incisor ameloblasts. Li, R., Li, W., DenBesten, P.K. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequential expression of matrix protein genes in developing rat teeth. Bleicher, F., Couble, M.L., Farges, J.C., Couble, P., Magloire, H. Matrix Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of dental epithelial progenitor cells derived from cervical-loop epithelium in a rat lower incisor. Kawano, S., Saito, M., Handa, K., Morotomi, T., Toyono, T., Seta, Y., Nakamura, N., Uchida, T., Toyoshima, K., Ohishi, M., Harada, H. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for regulation of amelogenin gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in vivo. Papagerakis, P., Hotton, D., Lezot, F., Brookes, S., Bonass, W., Robinson, C., Forest, N., Berdal, A. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunocytochemical study of amelogenin deposition during the early odontogenesis of molars in alendronate-treated newborn rats. Massa, L.F., Bradaschia-Correa, V., Arana-Chavez, V.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterisation of an alternatively-spliced rat amelogenin cDNA: LRAP--a highly conserved, functional alternatively-spliced amelogenin? Bonass, W.A., Kirkham, J., Brookes, S.J., Shore, R.C., Robinson, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of the chondrogenic-inducing activity from bovine dentin (bCIA) as a low-molecular-mass amelogenin polypeptide. Nebgen, D.R., Inoue, H., Sabsay, B., Wei, K., Ho, C.S., Veis, A. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of differentially expressed cDNA transcripts from a rat odontoblast cell line. Hao, J., He, G., Narayanan, K., Zou, B., Lin, L., Muni, T., Ramachandran, A., George, A. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunolocalization of enamelysin (matrix metalloproteinase-20) in the forming rat incisor. Bourd-Boittin, K., Septier, D., Hall, R., Goldberg, M., Menashi, S. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Internalization of amelogenin by dendritic cells of the papillary layer during transition and early maturation stages. Nishikawa, S., Sasaki, F. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Enamel protein chemistry--past, present and future. Eastoe, J.E. J. Dent. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Morphological and immunocytochemical analyses on the effects of diet-induced hypocalcemia on enamel maturation in the rat incisor. Nanci, A., Mocetti, P., Sakamoto, Y., Kunikata, M., Lozupone, E., Bonucci, E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative immunochemical analyses of the developmental expression and distribution of ameloblastin and amelogenin in rat incisors. Nanci, A., Zalzal, S., Lavoie, P., Kunikata, M., Chen, W., Krebsbach, P.H., Yamada, Y., Hammarström, L., Simmer, J.P., Fincham, A.G., Snead, M.L., Smith, C.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Amelogenin stimulates bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression through fibroblast growth factor 2 response element and transforming growth factor-beta1 activation element in the promoter of the BSP gene. Shimizu, E., Saito, R., Nakayama, Y., Nakajima, Y., Kato, N., Takai, H., Kim, D.S., Arai, M., Simmer, J., Ogata, Y. J. Periodontol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Protein dynamics of amelogenesis. Smith, C.E., Nanci, A. Anat. Rec. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of cytokeratin 14 in ameloblast-lineage cells of the developing tooth of rat, both in vivo and in vitro. Tabata, M.J., Matsumura, T., Liu, J.G., Wakisaka, S., Kurisu, K. Arch. Oral Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor. Matsuki, Y., Nakashima, M., Amizuka, N., Warshawsky, H., Goltzman, D., Yamada, K.M., Yamada, Y. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. High-resolution immunocytochemistry of noncollagenous matrix proteins in rat mandibles processed with microwave irradiation. Arana-Chavez, V.E., Nanci, A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of the inner enamel epithelium in the enamel-free area based on the ability to secrete enamel protein demonstrated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Yamamoto, H., Sasaki, J., Matsuura, J., Nomura, T., Sato, E.F., Shimokawa, H., Ishizeki, K., Nawa, T. Acta anatomica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence for charge domains on developing enamel crystal surfaces. Kirkham, J., Zhang, J., Brookes, S.J., Shore, R.C., Wood, S.R., Smith, D.A., Wallwork, M.L., Ryu, O.H., Robinson, C. J. Dent. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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