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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Efficacy of linezolid in experimental otitis media.

Therapy for otitis media (OM) due to resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC of penicillin, >/=2.0 microgram/ml) is challenging. Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, represent a new class of antimicrobial agents with excellent in vitro activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae; however, in vitro activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is limited. We evaluated its efficacy against experimental acute OM due to a multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate and two isolates of NTHI. The chinchilla model was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid against experimental infection due to S. pneumoniae or NTHI. Serum and middle ear antibiotic concentrations were determined, and sterilization of experimental OM was evaluated. Chinchillas were inoculated directly with S. pneumoniae into the superior bulla. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, all animals had positive middle ear and nasopharyngeal cultures. Animals were given linezolid at 25 mg/kg/dose twice a day (b.i.d.) by orogastric feeding tube or amoxicillin at 40 mg/kg/dose b.i.d. intramuscularly for 5 days. By day 5, all animals in the linezolid group had sterile middle ear cultures and eradication of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. In the amoxicillin group, all nine animals remained middle ear and nasopharynx positive (P < 0.01). In animals inoculated with NTHI, 25 and 37.5 mg/kg b.i.d. failed to sterilize middle ear infection or eradicate colonization. Mean levels in middle ear fluid measured during experimental infection were 12.8 microgram/ml at 2 to 6 h and 4. 1 mirogram/ml at 16 to 17 h after orogastric dosing at 25 mg/kg. Linezolid achieved a high concentration in the middle ear during experimental OM. Linezolid eradicated multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae from the middle ear and nasopharynx. Experimental infection and nasopharyngeal colonization due to NTHI persisted despite achievement of concentrations in the middle ear that were above the MIC (for NTHI).[1]


  1. Efficacy of linezolid in experimental otitis media. Pelton, S.I., Figueira, M., Albut, R., Stalker, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
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