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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Nasopharynx


High impact information on Nasopharynx


Chemical compound and disease context of Nasopharynx


Biological context of Nasopharynx


Anatomical context of Nasopharynx

  • We have shown that HE4 is expressed in a number of normal human tissues outside of the male reproductive system, including regions of the respiratory tract and nasopharynx, as well as in a subset of lung tumour cell lines [20].
  • BLU is highly expressed in testis and normal upper respiratory tract tissues including nasopharynx [21].
  • By day 5, all animals in the linezolid group had sterile middle ear cultures and eradication of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx [22].
  • Absence of pneumolysin was found to be associated with significantly lower numbers of pneumococci in the nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs [23].
  • These results suggest that the mechanism of enhanced colonization of the nasopharynx in vivo by transparent as compared with opaque phase variants involves a greater ability to adhere to both GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal on buccal epithelial cells and GlcNAc and PAF receptors on cytokine-activated, as opposed to resting, lung and endovascular cells [24].

Associations of Nasopharynx with chemical compounds

  • In the amoxicillin group, all nine animals remained middle ear and nasopharynx positive (P < 0.01) [22].
  • From patients and carriers, 77 strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and other drugs; 39 belonged to type b (cerebrospinal fluid, 16; blood, 4; ear, 7; and nasopharynx, 12), and 38 were non-type b [25].
  • If xylitol reduces the growth of S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx, it could also reduce the carriage of this pathogen and thus have clinical significance in the prevention of pneumococcal diseases [26].
  • Sinus CT scans were performed after instillation of radiopaque contrast medium into the nasopharynx followed by nose blowing, sneezing, and coughing [27].
  • "Permanent iodine-125 (I-125) boost after teletherapy in primary cancers of the nasopharynx is safe and highly effective: long-term results" [28].

Gene context of Nasopharynx

  • In addition, the clpP mutant was defective in colonization of the nasopharynx and survival in the lungs of mice after intranasal challenge [29].
  • Interestingly, strains isolated from middle ear fluid and blood elicited significantly fewer IL-8 and significantly more IL-12 and IL-10 than strains from nasopharynx [30].
  • Surprisingly, all four aquaporin proteins are highly abundant in nasopharynx [31].
  • Our results demonstrate that CcpA, though not a global regulator of CCR in S. pneumoniae, is required for colonization of the nasopharynx and survival and multiplication in the lung [32].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Elimination of MRSA from the nasopharynx of the patient [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nasopharynx

  • Of 9 proven anti-CD21 MAbs now examined on frozen sections of human nasopharynx, tonsil and ecto-cervix, only 3 (HB5, anti-B2, AB1) showed staining of stratified epithelium; 2 of these (HB5, anti-B2) also reacted with the surface of epithelial cells freshly dispersed from these sites [34].
  • Difference in the staying systems currently in use, the recent changes in imaging and radiotherapy technology, and the lack of distinction between UCNT and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasopharynx in Western literature reports make for some difficulty in therapeutic results evaluation when analyzing available literature [35].
  • We have studied mRNA expression of representative EBV lytic genes by RT-PCR in nasopharynx biopsies obtained from NPC and control individuals [36].
  • Eleven patients were treated for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma using radiosurgery as a boost (7 Gy-16 Gy, median: 12 Gy) to the nasopharynx after a course of fractionated radiotherapy (64.8-70 Gy) without chemotherapy [37].
  • Among the gustatory (1.0 M NaCl, 0.03 M HCl, 0.03 M QHCl, 1.0 M sucrose, H2O, and 0.9% NaCl) and mechanical stimuli applied to the nasopharynx, 1.0 M sucrose and 0.9% NaCl were ineffective in changing HR and BP; the rest of the stimuli were strongly effective as was the case with electrical stimulation of the PH-IXth nerve [38].


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  2. P53 overexpression and Epstein-Barr virus infection in undifferentiated and squamous cell nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Niedobitek, G., Agathanggelou, A., Barber, P., Smallman, L.A., Jones, E.L., Young, L.S. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Amyloid in localised deposits and plasmacytomas of the respiratory tract. Michaels, L., Hyams, V.J. J. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Tissue-specific, tumor-selective, replication-competent adenovirus vector for cancer gene therapy. Doronin, K., Kuppuswamy, M., Toth, K., Tollefson, A.E., Krajcsi, P., Krougliak, V., Wold, W.S. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Recovery of interfering bacteria in the nasopharynx following antimicrobial therapy of acute maxillary sinusitis with telithromycin or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Brook, I., Hausfeld, J.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Cancers of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and formaldehyde exposure. Tamburro, C.H., Waddell, W.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Cancers of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and formaldehyde exposure. Blair, A., Stewart, P.A., Hoover, R.N., Fraumeni, J.F., Walrath, J., O'Berg, M., Gaffey, W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Sequence of an influenza virus hemagglutinin determined directly from a clinical sample. Rajakumar, A., Swierkosz, E.M., Schulze, I.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. PLUNC: a novel family of candidate host defence proteins expressed in the upper airways and nasopharynx. Bingle, C.D., Craven, C.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Microbiologic efficacy of azithromycin and susceptibilities to azithromycin of isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae from adults and children with community-acquired pneumonia. Roblin, P.M., Hammerschlag, M.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Antimicrobial resistance in the nasopharyngeal flora of children with acute maxillary sinusitis and maxillary sinusitis recurring after amoxicillin therapy. Brook, I., Gober, A.E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Detection of Bordetella pertussis by polymerase chain reaction and culture in the nasopharynx of erythromycin-treated infants with pertussis. Edelman, K., Nikkari, S., Ruuskanen, O., He, Q., Viljanen, M., Mertsola, J. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytotoxic agents from Michelia champaca and Talauma ovata: parthenolide and costunolide. Hoffmann, J.J., Torrance, S.J., Widehopf, R.M., Cole, J.R. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Exhaled nitric oxide during exercise: site of release and modulation by ventilation and blood flow. Phillips, C.R., Giraud, G.D., Holden, W.E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and characterization of a cell envelope protein of Haemophilus influenzae contributing to phase variation in colony opacity and nasopharyngeal colonization. Weiser, J.N., Chong, S.T., Greenberg, D., Fong, W. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chang, J.T., See, L.C., Liao, C.T., Ng, S.H., Wang, C.H., Chen, I.H., Tsang, N.M., Tseng, C.K., Tang, S.G., Hong, J.H. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Mucosal immune response to poliovirus vaccines in childhood. Ogra, P.L. Rev. Infect. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Extended follow-up of a cohort of british chemical workers exposed to formaldehyde. Coggon, D., Harris, E.C., Poole, J., Palmer, K.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Establishment of transgenic mouse model carring the promoter of plunc sequence. Yang, Y.F., Ding, Y.Q., Zhang, L., Liang, L. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The putative ovarian tumour marker gene HE4 (WFDC2), is expressed in normal tissues and undergoes complex alternative splicing to yield multiple protein isoforms. Bingle, L., Singleton, V., Bingle, C.D. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The candidate tumor suppressor gene BLU, located at the commonly deleted region 3p21.3, is an E2F-regulated, stress-responsive gene and inactivated by both epigenetic and genetic mechanisms in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Qiu, G.H., Tan, L.K., Loh, K.S., Lim, C.Y., Srivastava, G., Tsai, S.T., Tsao, S.W., Tao, Q. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficacy of linezolid in experimental otitis media. Pelton, S.I., Figueira, M., Albut, R., Stalker, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Upper and lower respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is affected by pneumolysin deficiency and differences in capsule type. Kadioglu, A., Taylor, S., Iannelli, F., Pozzi, G., Mitchell, T.J., Andrew, P.W. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Relationship between colonial morphology and adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cundell, D.R., Weiser, J.N., Shen, J., Young, A., Tuomanen, E.I. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Susceptibility studies of multiply resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric patients and contacts. Campos, J., Garcia-Tornel, S., Sanfeliu, I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of xylitol on growth of nasopharyngeal bacteria in vitro. Kontiokari, T., Uhari, M., Koskela, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Nose blowing propels nasal fluid into the paranasal sinuses. Gwaltney, J.M., Hendley, J.O., Phillips, C.D., Bass, C.R., Mygind, N., Winther, B. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. "Permanent iodine-125 (I-125) boost after teletherapy in primary cancers of the nasopharynx is safe and highly effective: long-term results". Vikram, B. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. The ClpP protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae modulates virulence gene expression and protects against fatal pneumococcal challenge. Kwon, H.Y., Ogunniyi, A.D., Choi, M.H., Pyo, S.N., Rhee, D.K., Paton, J.C. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of phagocyte-stimulating and Th1-promoting cytokines by in vitro stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Arvå, E., Andersson, B. Scand. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Aquaporins in complex tissues. I. Developmental patterns in respiratory and glandular tissues of rat. King, L.S., Nielsen, S., Agre, P. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) contributes to virulence and regulation of sugar metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Iyer, R., Baliga, N.S., Camilli, A. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Aerosolized vancomycin therapy facilitating nursing home placement. Gradon, J.D., Wu, E.H., Lutwick, L.I. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification of a human epithelial cell surface protein sharing an epitope with the C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor molecule of B lymphocytes. Young, L.S., Dawson, C.W., Brown, K.W., Rickinson, A.B. Int. J. Cancer (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer (UCNT): current diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Altun, M., Fandi, A., Dupuis, O., Cvitkovic, E., Krajina, Z., Eschwege, F. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus lytic gene BRLF1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: potential use in diagnosis. Feng, P., Ren, E.C., Liu, D., Chan, S.H., Hu, H. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Radiosurgery for skull base malignancies and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cmelak, A.J., Cox, R.S., Adler, J.R., Fee, W.E., Goffinet, D.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Cardiovascular responses to gustatory and mechanical stimulation of the nasopharynx in rats. Hanamori, T., Ishiko, N. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
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