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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular cloning and characterization of Pals, proteins associated with mLin-7.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, three PDZ domain proteins, Lin-2, Lin-7, and Lin-10, are necessary for the proper targeting of the Let-23 growth factor receptor to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells. It has been demonstrated that homologues of Lin-2, Lin-7, and Lin-10 form a heterotrimeric complex in mammalian brain. Using Far Western overlay assay, we have identified additional proteins that can bind to the amino terminus of mLin-7 and cloned the genes encoding these proteins using bacterial expression cloning. We call these proteins Pals, for proteins associated with Lin-7. These proteins, which include mammalian Lin-2, contain a conserved mLin-7 binding domain in addition to guanylate kinase, PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/discs large/zona occludens-1), and Src homology 3 domains. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified the conserved residues among these proteins crucial for mLin-7 binding. Two of these proteins, Pals1 and Pals2, are newly described. Pals1 consists of 675 amino acids and maps to mouse chromosome 12. Pals2 was found to exist in two splice forms of 539 and 553 amino acids and maps to mouse chromosome 6. Like mLin-2, Pals1 and Pals2 localize to the lateral membrane in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Pals proteins represent a new subfamily of membrane-associated guanylate kinases that allow for multiple targeting complexes containing mLin-7.[1]


  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of Pals, proteins associated with mLin-7. Kamberov, E., Makarova, O., Roh, M., Liu, A., Karnak, D., Straight, S., Margolis, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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