The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

Estrogen replacement therapy has been correlated with an increased risk of developing breast or endometrial cancer. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a catechol metabolite of equilenin which is a minor component of the estrogen replacement formulation marketed under the name of Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst). Previously, we showed that 4-OHEN autoxidizes to quinoids which can consume reducing equivalents and molecular oxygen, are potent cytotoxins, and cause a variety of damage to DNA, including formation of bulky stable adducts, apurinic sites, and oxidation of the phosphate-sugar backbone and purine/pyrimidine bases [Bolton, J. L., Pisha, E., Zhang, F., and Qiu, S. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127]. All of these deleterious effects could contribute to the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of equilenin in vivo. In the study presented here, we examined the relative toxicity of 4-OHEN in estrogen receptor ( ER) positive cells (MCF-7 and S30) compared to that in breast cancer cells without the estrogen receptor (MDA-MB-231). The data showed that 4-OHEN was 4-fold more toxic to MCF-7 cells (LC(50) = 6.0 +/- 0. 2 microM) and 6-fold more toxic to S30 cells (LC(50) = 4.0 +/- 0.1 microM) than to MDA-MB-231 cells (LC(50) = 24 +/- 0.3 microM). Using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) to assess DNA damage, we found that 4-OHEN causes concentration-dependent DNA single-strand cleavage in all three cell lines, and this effect could be enhanced by agents which catalyze redox cycling (NADH) or deplete cellular GSH (diethyl maleate). In addition, the ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7 and S30) were considerably more sensitive to induction of DNA damage by 4-OHEN than the ER(-) cells (MDA-MB-231). 4-OHEN also caused a concentration-dependent increase in the amount of mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-dG in the S30 cells as determined by LC/MS-MS. Cell morphology assays showed that 4-OHEN induces apoptosis in these cell lines. As observed with the toxicity assay and the comet assay, the ER(+) cells were more sensitive to induction of apoptosis by 4-OHEN than MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, the endogenous catechol estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE) was considerably less effective at inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines than 4-OHEN. Our data suggest that the cytotoxic effects of 4-OHEN may be related to its ability to induce DNA damage and apoptosis in hormone sensitive cells in vivo, and these effects may be potentiated by the estrogen receptor.[1]


  1. A metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Chen, Y., Liu, X., Pisha, E., Constantinou, A.I., Hua, Y., Shen, L., van Breemen, R.B., Elguindi, E.C., Blond, S.Y., Zhang, F., Bolton, J.L. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities